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extraction
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  1萃取
     The optimum extraction conditions for spirmycin are 5.0% N 1923 , pH 9.56, O/A=1∶1, extraction rate is 90.5%, that for erythromycin are 7.5% N 1923 , pH 9.50, O/A=1∶1, extraction rate is 91.0%.
     经优化的萃取条件如下 :对螺旋霉素用5 .0 % N1 92 3,p H9.5 6 ,O/ A=1∶ 1,萃取率为 90 .5 % ; 萃取红霉素用 7.5 % N1 92 3,p H 9.5 0 ,O/ A=1∶ 1,萃取率为91.0 %。
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     The reaction product was extracted for dehydration by saturated KAc, using 3% K2CO3 as neutraliz-er, 0.4:1 extraction ratio, room temperature, and two stages extraction.
     产物粗酯用醋酸钾溶液(质量分数大于60%)萃取脱水,添加3%的K2CO3为中和剂,萃取比为0.4:1,萃取温度为室温,逆流2级萃取。
短句来源
     The solution was extracted by an organic phase consisted of 1% P_(507)~+ kerosene, phase ratio of 1:1,extraction 15min. Extraction rate was over 90%.
     以1%P507+煤油为有机相,相比O/A=1∶1,萃取时间15min,钪的萃取率达90%以上。
短句来源
     The new technique of preparing high pure-low fluorin niobium oxide from hydroxide niobium by extraction method was studied. The article discusses the effects of technical factors on the quality of product. When the better technical conditions are as follows: the ratio of extraction agent to water of 1:1,extraction time of 20 minutes,washing times of 10,calcination temperature of 800 ℃ which was achieved according to the results of perpendicularity experiment,the fluorine content of niobium oxide was under 7 ppm.
     以氢氧化铌为原料,研究了萃取法制备高纯低氟氧化铌的新工艺,讨论了工艺条件对产品质量的影响,由正交试验得出较佳工艺条件为萃取剂和水比为11,萃取时间为20min,洗涤次数10次,煅烧温度800℃.
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  “1 extraction”译为未确定词的双语例句
     1Extraction of total RNA: There was 28 s and 18 s distinct straps in 10 g/L agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE), and the ratio of 28 s and 18 s was about 2∶1, and there was insignificant degradation.
     ①总RNA的提取:在10g/L琼脂糖凝胶电泳上,可见28s和18s两个清晰条带,28s与18s比值约为2∶1,未见明显降解。
短句来源
     The type of 1∶1 extraction complex is formed between U(Ⅵ) and DMDLGA.
     DMDLGA与铀(Ⅵ)生成1∶1型萃合物;
短句来源
     By using water solution containing 0.3% antioxidant, the conditions of the ratio of solvent quantity to sample material of 12∶1, extraction of 8 h and temperature of 80℃ were the optimal parameters for collecting the antioxidants from Monochoria vaginalis.
     在液料比12∶1、提取时间8h、提取温度80℃,以0.3%抗氧化剂水溶液为溶剂,加工获得的鸭舌草乙醇提取液的抗氧化作用最强。
短句来源
     The optimum conditions with SDS/isooctane/octanol were as follows:SDS concentration 0.08 g/mL,raw material amount 0.1000 g,the molar ratio of water to surfactant 18∶1,extraction time 30 min,solubilized water pH 7,KCl concentration 0.1 mol/L.
     SDS/异辛烷/正辛醇反胶束体系萃取低温脱溶豆粕中蛋白质的最佳前萃工艺条件为:SDS浓度0.08 g/mL,加料量0.1000 g,反胶束溶液中含水量18,萃取时间30 m in,萃取温度40℃,增溶水pH 7,KC l浓度0.1 mol/L。
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     (2)the suitable conditions of extraction are that temperature is 150℃,solvent coal ration is 2∶1,extraction time is 1.5h;
     (2 )适宜抽提条件为 :15 0℃ ,抽提时间 1h ,溶煤比为 2∶1;
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     1 Design of the extraction device.
     1、萃取装置的设计。
短句来源
     1) Extraction of ginkgo flavones.
     1)传统法和新兴法提取银杏黄酮的工艺研究。
短句来源
     L~-1 ;
     L~(-1)左右;
短句来源
     L~(-1).
     L一l。
短句来源
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  extraction
Two methods were used: (1) extraction of Zn by water, dilute CaCl2 and HCl solution and (2) using pecan limb segments with introduced (at midpoint) Zn-B where the Zn was leached by dilute CaCl2 solution forced under pressure through limb sections.
      
Bioaccessible As was determined at time 0 (immediately after spiking), and at 6 and 12 months of equilibration using an in vitro gastrointestinal test, and As phytoavailability was measured with a 1-M KC1 extraction test.
      
In L2, extraction was essentially limited to the upper 0.4 m, while L1 extraction was to 0.8 m depth.
      
Group 1 (extraction drilled) received 9?mm diameter tunnels.
      
The glycogen pellet was resuspended to the original volume in PP-1 extraction buffer.
      
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In view of the necessity of a rapid and accurate process for the deter-mination of fluorine applicable in the analysis of sodium fluoride and otherfluorine compounds,the author has established a new volumetric processconsisting in the titration in aqueous-alcoholic medium with ferric nitrate asstandard solution and sodium salicylate as indicator.All of the methods,published by Guyot,Greeff,Fairchild andVisintin proposed for the determination of fluorine using ferric solutionas standard,are based on the reaction:6NaF+FeCl_3→Na_3FeF_6+3NaCl....

In view of the necessity of a rapid and accurate process for the deter-mination of fluorine applicable in the analysis of sodium fluoride and otherfluorine compounds,the author has established a new volumetric processconsisting in the titration in aqueous-alcoholic medium with ferric nitrate asstandard solution and sodium salicylate as indicator.All of the methods,published by Guyot,Greeff,Fairchild andVisintin proposed for the determination of fluorine using ferric solutionas standard,are based on the reaction:6NaF+FeCl_3→Na_3FeF_6+3NaCl. But the sodium ferric fluoride thus formed is fairly soluble in water and makesthe end-point unclear,therefore the titration can not be performed accurately.This seems to be due to the fact that the following two reactions advancesimultaneously,and accordingly the formation of sodium ferric fluoride is in-complete in aque(?)us medium:3NaF+Fe(NO_3)_3→FeF_3+3N_aNO_33NaF+FeF_3→Na_3FeF_6Nevertheless,these reactions,according to the author's experiments;proceedalmost quantitatively in meda.containing at least 50% by volume of alcohol.This paper reports the xperimental results obtained in the fundamentalstudies on the various factors influencing the accuracy of the volumetry,namely,the sensitivity and the necessary amount of sodium salicylate used asindicator,the pH value,the alcoholic concentration of the titration medium,the concentration of the fluoride taken for the determination and the timewhen alcohol should be added in the course of titration.Furthermore,a rapidvolumetric process with high accuracy is proposed together with its applicationsin ordinary analyses of sodium fluoride and other fluorine compounds.The proposed method is characteristic in using sodium salicylate asindicator,which shows sharp violet color with minute amount of ferric ion inmedium of pH 3 controlled with buffer solution,then titrating with standardferric nitrate,and adding proper amount of alcohol(the alcoholic concentra-tion at the end-point should be above 50%)during the titration,when themedium becomes orange yellow in color.The method may be summarized as follows:Take 5 ml of neutral sodiumfluoride solution of about 0.3 N in a small Erlenmeyer flask,add 2.5 mlof Walpole's buffer solution of pH 3(formed by dissolving 34.0 g ofcrystalline sodium acetate and 20 ml of 38% HCl in water,and making upto 250 ml)and 1 ml of 0.1 M sodium salicylate dissolved in 50% alcohol.After sufficient stirring,titrate with standard 0.3 N(0.05 M)ferric nitratesolution,using micro-burette until the medium becomes orange yellow,thisstep being reached after addition of about 4 ml of titrant.Then decolorizethe solution by adding 12.5 ml of absolute alcohol(or 13 ml of 95% alcohol),previously purified by redistillation with lime;stirring is necessary during theaddition.Further continue the titration until the light pink color formeddoes not fade after stirring for 30 seconds when observed over a white surface. In the analyses of sodium fluoride and other fluorine compounds con-taining interfering substances,such as divalent and polyvalent metallic ions,phosphate,silicate,borate,carbonate,sulfide ions and reductants acting on ferricion,it is necessary to separate fluorine from these interfering substances bythe distillation with sulfuric acid according to the method of Willard andWinter(20).Then the distillate is neutralized with dilute sodium hydroxideand adjusted to the proper pH with hydrochloric acid using p-nitrophenol asindicator.The solution is ready for titration as described.But in the caseof absence of these interfering substances except carbonate,for example,inthe determination of the concentration of sodium fluorde solution obtained bythe extraction of the crude product,produced industrially by fusing fluorsparwith sodium carbonate and silica,the above separation of fluorine by dis-tillation is dispensable.The anaIytical results obtained by the proposed method are in goodagreement with those obtained by the lead chlorofluoride process(8),whichis recognized as official method for the determination of fluorine in agriculturalproducts.

本文介绍一容量分析氟的新方法和在工业制品上的应用,并分析了一种工业制备的氟化钠液,所得的结果和氟氯化铅法所得的极为一致。对于影响该分析法准确度的各种因素:指示剂的灵敏度和滴定时适宜的用量、溶液的 pH 值、应加的乙醇量、操作中加乙醇的次序、以及氟离子的适宜浓度,均加以研究并找出适宜的情况。本法用硝酸铁为标准液,水杨酸钠作指示剂,在 pH=3左右作滴定;当溶液呈橙黄色时,加入适量的乙醇,使其浓度在终点时仍不低于50%。如有干扰物质如二价及多价金属离子、磷酸根、矽酸根、硼酸根、碳酸根、硫化物和还原物质可能与三价铁起作用者,均应分离之。

4-Methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine was prepared by heating 4-methyl-uracil with phosphorous oxychloride in the presence of phosphorous pentachloride; and it boiled at 97° at 7 mm, at 102° at 10 mm, or at 113° at 13 mm. 4-Methyl-2,6- dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium methoxide in anhydrous methyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6- dimethoxy-pyrimidine, which was isolated by ether extraction and pnrified by vacuum distillation. Pure 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine boiled at 85-87° at 7 mm, or at 103° at...

4-Methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine was prepared by heating 4-methyl-uracil with phosphorous oxychloride in the presence of phosphorous pentachloride; and it boiled at 97° at 7 mm, at 102° at 10 mm, or at 113° at 13 mm. 4-Methyl-2,6- dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium methoxide in anhydrous methyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6- dimethoxy-pyrimidine, which was isolated by ether extraction and pnrified by vacuum distillation. Pure 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine boiled at 85-87° at 7 mm, or at 103° at 13 mm, and melted at 62-65°. It was recrystallized from petroleum ether, m.p. 65-66°. In the above reaction, there was isolated a white solid, suspending in the ethereal solution and being collected separately. This white solid, considered as a by-product, was dissolved in hot water and acidified with acetic acid, whereupon it separated in needles. After recrystallization from water, it melted at 201-202°. It was tentatively assigned to be 4-methyl-2-methoxy- uracil. Further, 2,6-dialkoxy-pyrimidines were prepared similarly as 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxy- pyrimidine: 4-Methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium ethylate in anhydrous ethyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6-diethoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 110°/11 ram. 4-Methyl- 2,6-dichloropyrimidine was treated with sodium n-propoxide in normal propyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6-di-n-propoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 120°/5 mm. 4-Methyl- 2,6-dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium iso-propoxide in isopropyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6-di-isopropoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 103°/3 mm. The action of sodium n-butoxide in normal butyl alcohoI upon 4-methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidnie gave 4-methyl- 2,6-di-n-butoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 147-148°/5 mm. The action of sodium isobutoxide in isobutyl alcohol upon 4-methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine gave 4-methyl-2,6- isobutoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 132-133°/6 mm. The action of sodium isopentoxide in isopentyl alcohol upon 4-methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine gave 4 methyl-2,6-di-isopentoxy- pyrimidine, which boiled at 145-146°/3 mm. 4-Methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium benzoxide in benzyl alcohol, giving 4-methyl-2,6-dibenzoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 231°/6 mm. 4-Methyl-2,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine was heated in a sealed tube at 330-350°, giving the completely rearranged isomeric compound, 1,3,4-trimethyl-uracil, which was purified by vacuum sublimation at 130° at 10 mm and then by recrystallization from 95% alcohol. The latter melted at 107-109°. Nevertheless, 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine was dis- solved in methyl iodide, and kept at room temperature in the dark with occasional shaking; whereupon the partially rearranged product, 2-oxy-3,4-dimethyl-6-methoxy-pyrimidine, gradually separated out. After recrystallization from absolutealcohol, it melted at 134-135.5°. Its structure was established as follows: Pure 2-oxy-3,4-dimethyl-6-methoxy-pyrimidine was heated with dilute hydrochloric acid for one hour; whereupon 3,4-dimethyl-uracil, m.p. 220-221°, separated out. This partially rearranged product, 2-oxy-3,4-dimethyl-6-methoxy- pyrimidine was heated at 335-350° and was again transformed into its stable and completely rearranged modification, 1,3,4-trimethyl-uracil, which was purified by vacuum sublimation and then recrystallization from 95% alcohol. The latter melted at 109-110°.

(1)4-甲基-2,6-二氯代嘧啶與鈉醇和醇的溶液作用,可以形成相應的2,6-二烴氧基嘧啶。 (2)4-甲基-2,6-二甲氧基嘧啶加熱至高温度即可轉變成其穩定結構的異構體1,3,4-三甲基-2,6-二羥基嘧啶。另一方面,在碘代甲烷催化劑的影響下,部份轉變成2-氧代-3,4-二甲基-6-甲氧基嘧啶;此化合物加熱卽可發生完全的轉變作用而形成其異構體1,3,4-三甲基-2,6-二羥基嘧啶。

By heat treatment study, extraction experiments and powder photography, the differential thermal effects occuring below 250°of three amorphous sulfides of antimony are inter- preted in this paper. At about 220°, all the three amorphous sulfides produce crystalline Sb_2S_3. In the neighborhood of 160°, the pentasulfide and tetrasulfide segregate into easily extractable sulfur and amorphous Sb_2S_3. The latter change has been identifid in the main with the following reaction: 1/xS_x→1/8S_8+~3 kcal. On...

By heat treatment study, extraction experiments and powder photography, the differential thermal effects occuring below 250°of three amorphous sulfides of antimony are inter- preted in this paper. At about 220°, all the three amorphous sulfides produce crystalline Sb_2S_3. In the neighborhood of 160°, the pentasulfide and tetrasulfide segregate into easily extractable sulfur and amorphous Sb_2S_3. The latter change has been identifid in the main with the following reaction: 1/xS_x→1/8S_8+~3 kcal. On the basis of the above identification, the pentasulfide and tetrasulfide prepared from Na_3SbS_4·9H_2O are probably complex systems of [Sb_2S_3+S_μ+S_λ] and of [Sb_2S_3+S_μ] respectively. The fact that a synthetic sample containing 91% amorphous Sb_2S_3 and 9% Sμ gives essentially the same differential thermal diagram as the pentasulfide and tetrasulfide strongly supports the proposed model. According to Currie, Bunsen's pentasulfide contains no easily extractable sulfur. However, Bunsen's pentasulfide may not be a chemical individual either, inasmuch as it produces easily extractable sulfur at about 160°. In the light of the proposed theory, Bunsen's pentasulfide is probably a complex system of [Sb_2S_3+2S_μ]. The differential thermal diagram of the pentasulfide is probably a pertinent reference to its quality.

銻的三種無定形硫化物在250°以內的差熱效應,曾於熱處理實驗、硫的提取實驗與粉末法的結果的配合下取得了鑑定與解釋。五硫化二銻與四硫化二銻在160°附近進行一放熱的、析出容易脫去的硫的析硫作用,並在220°附近進行無定形Sb_2S_3的晶化作用。析硫作用主要是下列變化: 1/xS_x→1/8S_8+~3千卡而從硫代銻酸鈉製得的、含有~8%容易脫去的硫的五硫化二銻樣品基本上是下列複雜的無定形體系 [Sb_2S_3+S_μ+S_λ]Currie按照Bunsen方法製得的、不含容易脫去的硫的五硫化二銻樣品可能是下列複雜的無定形體系 [Sb_2S_3+2S_μ] 合成樣品[Sb_2S_3+S_μ]的差熱曲線與所謂五硫化二銻和四硫化二銻者並無二致。文中最後還曾指出了從差熱曲線來檢驗五硫化二銻質量的可能性等。

 
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