Our simulation results show that for high positive errors correlation cases, these new tests have lower type-1 error and large power than modified F-test.

The simulation results show that for high positive errors correlation cases,these two approximate tests statistics have lower type-1 error and larger power.

As a basic theory in forest mensuration,the stand volume error from the diameter rounding was studied in this paper,and profound new ideas as following,①comparing the stand survey factors from the diameter rounding to those from the diameter without rounding,there is no error in the arithmetic average diameter in general,but positive errors in the stand square average diameter and stand volume,and the theoretical error value of stand volume is P V=( a 2/12d 2)×100;

Conclusions The criterion for diagnosis of thyroid size with B utrasound without considering the development of children's body false positive errors in which the normal children are diagnosed as of thyroid goiter.

By analysis,we know that isothermal characteristics and flow resistance diversely affect the errors,which isothermal characteristics lead to positive errors while flow resistance leads to negative errors.

A similar Hamming distance method is adopted in the detection,which is effective in reducing false positive errors and false negative errors; the error rate is less than 10%.

Legislatures use these terms of art as a matter of policy to control the risk of false-positive errors.

We discuss two major reviews of the accuracy of dichotomous (yes/no) violence predictions (Monahan, 1981; Otto, 1992), which reported rates offalse positive errors that were calculated using conceptually and mathematically dissimilar methods.

The concern that the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and other screening tests have a relatively high rate of false positive errors which results in overestimation of the true prevalence in general population studies is shown to be unfounded.

In the paper, a new hybrid genetic algorithm solving the DNA sequencing problem with negative and positive errors is presented.

In the paper, two evolutionary approaches to the general DNA sequencing problem, assuming both negative and positive errors in the spectrum, are compared.

The effects of copper and zinc ionsupon the precipitation of barium sul-phate have been noted for a long time.However,the results published wereeither not systematic(3,4b,5,6)or obtained under conditions apart fromusual analytical practice(7,8).Thus,it seems necessary to investigate thissubject in more detail by the usual methods of determination.The presentcommunication reports(a)the effect of various amounts of cupric and zincions and(b)the influence of different acidities during precipitation in thepresence...

The effects of copper and zinc ionsupon the precipitation of barium sul-phate have been noted for a long time.However,the results published wereeither not systematic(3,4b,5,6)or obtained under conditions apart fromusual analytical practice(7,8).Thus,it seems necessary to investigate thissubject in more detail by the usual methods of determination.The presentcommunication reports(a)the effect of various amounts of cupric and zincions and(b)the influence of different acidities during precipitation in thepresence and absence of zinc ions.It is found that the interference of copper in the determination of sulphuras barium sulphate up to a ratio of 20:1 for Cu:S is negligible.The deviationsof the results obtained from theoretical values are all within ±2‰(see Table1),and do not show any regularity with the amount of copper added.The presence of zinc ions alone gives satisfactory results(slightly lowerthan theoretical values).As the amount of zinc ions in solution increases,thedeviations become somewhat wider(Table 2).The low results are presumedto be due to(1)the formation of soluble zinc-sulphate complex,which holdsa part of sulphate in solution,and/or(2)diverse ion effect.In the presenceof zinc ions,introducing hydrochloric acid up to 0.1 N before precipitationcauses essentially the same errors as if hydrochloric acid were absent(cf.Tables2 and 3),while at and beyond 0.2 N positive errors are obtained.A spectrographic examination of the precipitates reveals that zinc doescoprecipitate with barium sulphate,though only to a slight extent.The amountof zinc coprecipitated decreases with the increase of the acidity of the solutionfrom which the precipitate is thrown down.

4-Amino-4'-chlorodiphenyl, a related compound of benzidine, is used as areagent for sulfate determination, hence it is interesting to study whetherthis reagent can be used as a precipitant in tungsten (VI) and molybdenum(VI) determinations. It is found in the present investigation that the reagentmay be used as a precipitant for tungsten (VI) and is promising for moly-bdenum (VI) determinations. For tungsten (VI) determination, the recommended conditions are: (a) thepH of solution should be adjusted to 1.5--3.1,...

4-Amino-4'-chlorodiphenyl, a related compound of benzidine, is used as areagent for sulfate determination, hence it is interesting to study whetherthis reagent can be used as a precipitant in tungsten (VI) and molybdenum(VI) determinations. It is found in the present investigation that the reagentmay be used as a precipitant for tungsten (VI) and is promising for moly-bdenum (VI) determinations. For tungsten (VI) determination, the recommended conditions are: (a) thepH of solution should be adjusted to 1.5--3.1, so that errors will be less thanfive parts per thousand; (b) the precipitation should be taken place at roomtemperature, heated to nearly boiling and then digested on water bath for twohours in order to coagulate the precipitate; (c) the concentration of reagentafter precipitation should be about 0.15% (calculated on the basis that one ionof tungsten (VI) takes two moles of the precipitant); (d) the amounts of tung-sten that can be determined with this method are 4--75 milligrams (the extremesexamined); (e) the precipitate can not be dried to constant weight and theoptimum ignition temperature is between 625--850°, as found from the ther-molysis curve (see Fig. 1 in the Chinese text); and (f) the effect of severalalkali salts are studied, among them ammonium chloride (2 gm) exerts noeffect, sodium and potassium chlorides (1.0 and 2.5 gm respectively) exert aslight positive errors probably due to adsorption of the alkalies. The effect ofsodium nitrate (2.5 gm) or ammonium acetate (2.0 gm) is not serious. Aprocedure for analysis is given. For molybdenum (VI) determination, it is found that the precipitation of4-amino-4'-chlorodiphenyl molybdate requires a pH between 1.8--2.8, with errorsless than one percent. Though the precipitate is more soluble than the cor-responding tungstate, its use for determining molybdenum (VI) is promising.

Ball's formula method has been modified. The modification was completed through correcting the error in Ball's formula. The accuracy of modified Ball's formula method has been examined.In contrast the accuracy of original Ball's formula method, and the other methods used frequently in the world including Stumbo's method, Hayakawa's method, computer method etc have been examined. It has been found that the accuracy of modified Ball's formula method increased by 2 to 5 times in comparison with original Ball's...

Ball's formula method has been modified. The modification was completed through correcting the error in Ball's formula. The accuracy of modified Ball's formula method has been examined.In contrast the accuracy of original Ball's formula method, and the other methods used frequently in the world including Stumbo's method, Hayakawa's method, computer method etc have been examined. It has been found that the accuracy of modified Ball's formula method increased by 2 to 5 times in comparison with original Ball's formula method, Stumbo's method had serious positive error. Hayakawa's method had better accuracy. In all of methods, computer method had the best accuracy.