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energy landscape
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  能量景观
     1 Most of the proteins examined so far proceed oxidative refolding via multiple pathways rather than a single and specific pathway. This is consistent with the folding energy landscape theory.
     1 在已研究过的蛋白质中 ,大多数蛋白质都是沿着多途径而非单一、特定的途径进行氧化重折叠 ,这与折叠能量景观学说是一致的。
短句来源
  能量景观
     1 Most of the proteins examined so far proceed oxidative refolding via multiple pathways rather than a single and specific pathway. This is consistent with the folding energy landscape theory.
     1 在已研究过的蛋白质中 ,大多数蛋白质都是沿着多途径而非单一、特定的途径进行氧化重折叠 ,这与折叠能量景观学说是一致的。
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  “energy landscape”译为未确定词的双语例句
     China's LNG development in the new energy landscape——International LNG Development Forum, China, 2006
     审视能源新格局下中国液化天然气的发展——记“2006中国液化天然气行业发展国际论坛”
短句来源
     The SD/GA method is then applied to the optimization of solvation parameters in the non-polar cavity term of the PB model. The results show that the newly optimized parameters from SD/GA not only increase the accuracy in the solvation free energies for ~200 organic molecules, but also significantly improve the free energy landscape of a β-hairpin folding.
     之后SD/GA方法被用来优化PB模型中的non-polar cavity term参数,结果显示,利用SD/GA优化过的PB模型不仅在计算200个小有机分子的溶剂自由能时提高了准确率,更大大改进了B-hairpin折叠的free energy landscape。
短句来源
     In the dissertation, using an adaptive zero-temperature string method, which was presented based on the zero-temperature string method, carries out the study of transition paths in rare events for complex systems with smooth energy landscape.
     论文在零温度弦方法的基础上提出了自适应零温度弦方法,对带有光滑能量面的复杂系统中的稀有事件的转化路径进行了研究。
短句来源
     Reshaping of the Global Energy Landscape
     世界能源格局的变化与调整
短句来源
     The Chapter Five analyzes the problems of great residential district in the following aspects: city space structure, road and traffic system, residential building, public establishment, social structure and district energy, landscape, culture pattern, planning program and economy.
     第五章剖析了大型居住区在城市空间结构和形态发展、道路交通、住宅、公共配套设施、城市社会空间结构和城市活力、住区外部环境、居住区文化格调、规划程序、金融经济等方面的问题。
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  energy landscape
We also study the local energy landscape and show that it has the hierarchical structure known from spin glasses.
      
To better understand dynamic aspects of water, we focus on the role of the number of diffusive directions in the potential energy landscape.
      
A tunably fine- or coarse-grained sampling of the energy landscape yields a family of distributions for the energies and energy spacings.
      
The free energy landscape of random Ising systems with the Hopfield Hamiltonian as a special example is applied to the replication rate coefficient landscape.
      
We perform the quenched average for a nonmetric TSP in the second representation and the resulting problem is more complicated than the infinite-range spin-glass problem, suggesting that the free energy landscape may be more complex.
      
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The mechanism of oxidative refolding of proteins was elucidated in more detail from the intensive and extensive studies in the past decades. 1 Most of the proteins examined so far proceed oxidative refolding via multiple pathways rather than a single and specific pathway. This is consistent with the folding energy landscape theory. 2 It is the native interactions rather than the non native interactions that direct the folding process. This is not necessarily incompatible with the importance of the...

The mechanism of oxidative refolding of proteins was elucidated in more detail from the intensive and extensive studies in the past decades. 1 Most of the proteins examined so far proceed oxidative refolding via multiple pathways rather than a single and specific pathway. This is consistent with the folding energy landscape theory. 2 It is the native interactions rather than the non native interactions that direct the folding process. This is not necessarily incompatible with the importance of the non native disulfide intermediates in the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) pathway, which are just a chemical necessity in the intramolecular arrangement to facilitate native disulfide formation. 3 Based on the BPTI refolding it was suggested that disulfide bonds have a stabilizing effect on the native state without determining either the folding pathway or the final three dimensional structure of the protein. This point of view is not applicable to other proteins. Studies on the refolding of prochymosin unequivocally demonstrated that the formation of native disulfides is the prerequisite to the recovery of the native conformation. It is more likely that the interdependence between the native disulfide formation and the formation of native structure is a general rule. 4 At the early stage of oxidative refolding disulfide formation is essentially a random process, with the progress of refolding further disulfide formation is increasingly dependent on the conformations of the intermediates. Enhancing the renaturation yield of recombinant proteins is a major challenge in biotechnology. In addition to aggregation, the formation of species with mispaired disulfide bonds is a leading cause of decreased yield. Progress in understanding the mechanism of oxidative refolding has provided insight into how to solve this problem. As described above, at the later stage of refolding disulfide formation depends on the conformations of intermediates. The intermediates with native like and flexible structure favourable for native disulfide formation and correct refolding are productive intermediates, while the unproductive intermediates tend to adopt stable conformations, which render the thiol groups and disulfide bond(s) inaccessible and further folding unfavourable energetically. Therefore, the principle to enhance the renaturation yield of disulfide containing proteins is to cause the productive intermediates to predominate by destabilizing the unproductive intermediates. To approach this, alkaline pH, low temperature, labilizing agents, protein disulfide isomerase and its analogues and alteration of primary structure have been proved useful to adjusting the structure of the unproductive intermediates so as to facilitate thiol/disulfide interchange and in turn the native disulfide formation. The prospects for the oxidative refolding of proteins both in basic and applied researches are discussed in this review article.

经过近几十年来广泛而深入的研究 ,蛋白质氧化重折叠的机制已得到相当详细的阐明。 1 在已研究过的蛋白质中 ,大多数蛋白质都是沿着多途径而非单一、特定的途径进行氧化重折叠 ,这与折叠能量景观学说是一致的。 2 正是氨基酸残基间的天然相互作用而不是非天然的相互作用控制蛋白质的折叠过程。这一结论与含非天然二硫键的折叠中间体在牛胰蛋白酶抑制剂 (BPTI)折叠中所起的重要作用并非相互排斥 ,因为后者仅仅是进行链内二硫键重排的化学反应所必需 ,与控制肽链折叠无直接关系。 3 根据对BPTI的研究 ,二硫键曾被认为仅仅具有稳定蛋白质天然结构的作用 ,既不决定折叠途径也不决定其三维构象。这一观点不适用于其它蛋白质。对凝乳酶原的研究表明 ,天然二硫键的形成是恢复天然构象的前提。天然二硫键的形成与肽键的正确折叠相辅相成 ,更具有普遍意义。 4 在氧化重折叠的早期 ,二硫键的形成基本上是一个随机过程 ,随着肽链的折叠二硫键的形成越来越受折叠中间体构象的限制。提高重组蛋白质的复性产率是生物技术领域中的一个巨大的挑战。除了分子聚集外 ,在折叠过程中所形成的二硫键错配分子是导致低复性率的另一个主要原因。氧化重折叠机制的阐明为解决此...

经过近几十年来广泛而深入的研究 ,蛋白质氧化重折叠的机制已得到相当详细的阐明。 1 在已研究过的蛋白质中 ,大多数蛋白质都是沿着多途径而非单一、特定的途径进行氧化重折叠 ,这与折叠能量景观学说是一致的。 2 正是氨基酸残基间的天然相互作用而不是非天然的相互作用控制蛋白质的折叠过程。这一结论与含非天然二硫键的折叠中间体在牛胰蛋白酶抑制剂 (BPTI)折叠中所起的重要作用并非相互排斥 ,因为后者仅仅是进行链内二硫键重排的化学反应所必需 ,与控制肽链折叠无直接关系。 3 根据对BPTI的研究 ,二硫键曾被认为仅仅具有稳定蛋白质天然结构的作用 ,既不决定折叠途径也不决定其三维构象。这一观点不适用于其它蛋白质。对凝乳酶原的研究表明 ,天然二硫键的形成是恢复天然构象的前提。天然二硫键的形成与肽键的正确折叠相辅相成 ,更具有普遍意义。 4 在氧化重折叠的早期 ,二硫键的形成基本上是一个随机过程 ,随着肽链的折叠二硫键的形成越来越受折叠中间体构象的限制。提高重组蛋白质的复性产率是生物技术领域中的一个巨大的挑战。除了分子聚集外 ,在折叠过程中所形成的二硫键错配分子是导致低复性率的另一个主要原因。氧化重折叠机制的阐明为解决此问题提供了有益的启示。如上所述 ,在折叠的后期 ,二

Acombination of factors is bringing profound changes to the global energy landscape, as evidenced by the increasing control exercised by some oil-producing countries over their oil resources. Russia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and Chad among other oil- producing nations are all stepping up efforts to tighten their grip on oil resources, a move with profound implications for the global oil industry. To gain deeper insight into this emerging trend, we interviewed a group of experts, including among others...

Acombination of factors is bringing profound changes to the global energy landscape, as evidenced by the increasing control exercised by some oil-producing countries over their oil resources. Russia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and Chad among other oil- producing nations are all stepping up efforts to tighten their grip on oil resources, a move with profound implications for the global oil industry. To gain deeper insight into this emerging trend, we interviewed a group of experts, including among others Mr. Xu Xiaojie, head of the Overseas Investment Environment Office, CNPC Economic and Technology Research Institute, Mr. Xu Shicheng, research fellow with the Latin America Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Mr.Tong Xiaoguang, academician at the Chinese Academy of Engineering and China National Oil Development Corporation advisor, and Mr. Zeng Xingqiu, former Sinochem chief geologist. Our topics were focused on the following issues: adjustments made by the oil-producing countries to their oil policies; internal and external reasons for and characteristics of this tightening government grip on oil resources; global response to the adjustments; trends and consequences expected to result and how Chinese oil companies should respond to this new development. Given the new global energy landscape, Chinese oil authorities and businesses, according to the experts, should keep a close eye on policy changes by the oil-producing countries, seek energy cooperation with those countries and regions on a reciprocal basis, and expand operations there guided by the new concept of energy security (reciprocal cooperation, diversified development and joint guarantee of energy security) advocated by President Hu Jintao. A

近一个时期,部分石油资源国先后调整本国的石油政策,加强了对本国石油资源的控制,引起了国际社会的广泛关注。本刊约请部分专家就这一情况产生的内因、外因、特点、趋势以及可能产生的影响进行了讨论。专家们一致认为,在新的国际能源政治格局下,我国有关部门和企业应深入研究相关国家石油政策的变化,审慎决策,在互利双赢的原则下与相关国家和地区进行能源合作,遵守国际惯例,进一步推进我国石油企业在这些国家和地区的国际化经营,以实践胡锦涛主席倡导的“互利合作、多元发展、协同保障”的新的能源安全观。

Global energy demand has been spiraling upward since the late 1990s, widening the imbalance between oil consumption and production. Although there is no real shortage of energy resources, with the the shortage caused by production structural imbalance in sweet and sulfur crude oil, the global oil market has been, to some extent, a seller's market. The global oil price is affected by more factors than ever, as energy market globalization and diversification continue. The energy-importing countries are stepping...

Global energy demand has been spiraling upward since the late 1990s, widening the imbalance between oil consumption and production. Although there is no real shortage of energy resources, with the the shortage caused by production structural imbalance in sweet and sulfur crude oil, the global oil market has been, to some extent, a seller's market. The global oil price is affected by more factors than ever, as energy market globalization and diversification continue. The energy-importing countries are stepping up their plans for energy saving and new energy development. The energy-exporting countries, on the other hand, are tightening their grip on resources and expanding their energy diplomacy while increasing their energy investment and openness to participation from the outside. Intensifying competition in energy exploration and development is also prompting expanded worldwide cooperation in energy development. Fueled by regional energy integration, and a growing global concern for energy security, a worldwide energy dialogue is on the agenda of most international energy meetings. A combination of such factors is profoundly changing and reshaping the global energy landscape.

自20世纪90年代末起,世界能源需求进入新的扩张期,消费与生产因地域造成的失衡局面将进一步加剧。尽管供应方面不存在资源性短缺,但结构性短缺仍将持续,世界石油市场在一定程度上由买方市场向卖方市场过渡。能源市场全球化、多元化趋势明显,影响价格的因素增多。能源消费国纷纷调整能源战略,加强节能和新能源开发。资源输出国则在加大投资和开放力度的同时,加强资源控制,积极拓展能源外交。国际能源勘探开发领域的竞争日趋激烈。与此同时,国际能源合作全方位推进,地区能源一体化势头强劲,全球能源安全对话被提上国际社会议事日程。在多种因素的共同作用下,世界能源格局正在发生变化并加速调整。

 
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