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effect of
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    This paper analyses the change, effect and stability of precipitation in Hongkong, the heavy rain and its harm, and the heating effect of city that leads to the change in precipitation.
    本文分析了香港降水的变化、降水效应以及降水的稳定性, 从香港降水强度中分析香港暴雨的情况及其危害, 并指出城市热岛效应使香港降水产生变化。
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    Result shows that the effect of heat island has made the average difference in temperature of the past 30 years rising to 0.5℃, the average difference in Tmin of one year changing to 0.8~1.0℃.
    结果表明 :城区热岛效应使近 3 0年城乡年平均气温差值升高到 0 .5℃ ,年平均最低气温差值升高到 0 .8~ 1.0℃ ;
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    The results showed that, for the aerosol radiative effect of smoke layer in Lanzhou in clear sky, their influences were similar, with which the aerosol radiative effect could be well reflected in the WRFABL model, i. e. the simulations of the wind and temperature fields were more reasonable compared with the observations.
    结果表明,就兰州地区晴空无云烟雾层气溶胶辐射效应问题而言,二者计算效果相当,都能很好地在中尺度模式系统中反映气溶胶的辐射效应,使模拟得到的兰州地区边界层风温场特征更为细致,与实际相比更加合理。
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    The results show that the all-day radiative effect of the smog layer makes the incoming radiative energy in the upper part of the low layer to be positive,and the middle and lower part to be negative. The total result is cooling slightly air of the low layer and increasing the stability.
    计算表明,烟雾层的全天辐射效应使低层大气上部辐射能量收入为正,中下部辐射能量收入为负,总的结果是使低层大气稍稍冷却并使稳定度增加。
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  “effect of”译为未确定词的双语例句
    A MICROMETEOROLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THERMAL EFFECT OF SOIL MULCHING
    土壤覆盖热效应的微气象研究
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    EFFECT OF WIND VERTICAL SHEAR ON DIFFUSION CHARACTERISTICS IN THE MESOSCALE RANGE
    风垂直切变对中距离扩散特征的影响
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    The effect of Wafer Dimer Vapour on Microwave Remote Sensing of atmospheric Humidity
    微波遥感大气湿度时多分子水的影响
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    THE EFFECT OF HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS ON THE CLIMATE
    大气中卤代化合物对气候的影响
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    THE EFFECT OF THE KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ WAVE ON PRECIPITATION IN THE ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER
    大气边界层中Kelvin-Helmholtz波对降水的作用
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The method we use is a combination of the smoothing effect of the operator ?t + ?x(2j+1) and a gauge transformation performed on a linear system, which allows us to consider initial data with arbitrary size.
      
Our studies demonstrated an in vivo cardioprotection effect of (N-(3,4,-dimethoxy-2-chlorobenzylideneamino)-guanidine: ME10092) in ischaemic reperfusion injury in the rodent.
      
In the present study, the effect of picroliv, an irridoid glycosidic fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa, on the above said parameters of these alcoholic rats was studied.
      
The effect of the most promising ones have been looked on the counterparts from mammalian sources and difference in the susceptibility towards enzyme activity inhibition were noted.
      
Cytotoxic Effect of Coscinium Fenestratrum (Gaertn.) Colebr.
      
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The Austausch coefficient may be obtained by wind structure. 1902 Ekman established the wind spiral theory in the friction layer. From the observed wind spiral, we may calculate of the Austausch coefficient by this theory. 1952 considered effect of the change of pressure field with height; i. e. the thermal wind effect, and found excellent results. But, Formula holds only for the condition in the stationary current flow, or in the stationary temperature pressure field and uniform temperature pressure...

The Austausch coefficient may be obtained by wind structure. 1902 Ekman established the wind spiral theory in the friction layer. From the observed wind spiral, we may calculate of the Austausch coefficient by this theory. 1952 considered effect of the change of pressure field with height; i. e. the thermal wind effect, and found excellent results. But, Formula holds only for the condition in the stationary current flow, or in the stationary temperature pressure field and uniform temperature pressure gradient.In this paper, we consider the unstationary effect, as calculating the Austausch coefficient in the friction layer, and obtain a more general formula. Under some special constrains, it tends to be the or Ekman's formula. Then, this formula may be more accurate in calculation and more wide in application.Some calculations based on observed data by using these three different formulas are presented and compared.

摩擦层中湍流系数,利用风标的分布,可以测定之。1902年,爱克曼创立了摩擦层中风标螺线,利用风标螺线,可以测定摩擦层中的湍流系数。1953年,莱赫特曼考虑了气压场随高度的变化,即热成风的因素,获得了良好的结果。但是,莱赫特曼公式之应用,只限定于恒态吹流,或恒态均匀温压场的条件之下,方能准确使用。这样是在一般情况之下难以满足的。关于摩擦层非恒态问题,1947年赵九章、裘碧克曾经讨论过。本文仅就非恒态湍流系数测定问题予以进一步探讨。并得到了较有广泛意义之公式。而莱赫特曼公式,系属温压场恒态,温压场中温度、压力梯度在均匀情况之下,该公式之特解。爱克曼范式,系属气压场稳定,温度梯度恒态为零时,该公式之特解。这样,该公式的计算,使得湍流系数测定工作精确化和广泛化。 最后,本文作了一些实际资料的计算与分析,和讨论在自然环境中湍流系数的变化。

Using the x,y,p coordinates,and neglecting the small terms in thesteady state vorticity equation, we have(?)taking two layer baroclinic model,as Sawyer and Bushby,we let(?)in whichA(p)=(p_0+p_1-2p)/(p_0-p_1),(3)where p_0=1000mb and p_1=200mb.Introducing (2) to (1) and integrating from p=p_0 to p=p_1 under thefollowing bundary conditions(?)We obtain(?)where H=(RT_0)/g is the height of the homogeneous atmosphere,and η=η(x,y) is the topography of the earth's surface.For the distribution of vertical velocity,we...

Using the x,y,p coordinates,and neglecting the small terms in thesteady state vorticity equation, we have(?)taking two layer baroclinic model,as Sawyer and Bushby,we let(?)in whichA(p)=(p_0+p_1-2p)/(p_0-p_1),(3)where p_0=1000mb and p_1=200mb.Introducing (2) to (1) and integrating from p=p_0 to p=p_1 under thefollowing bundary conditions(?)We obtain(?)where H=(RT_0)/g is the height of the homogeneous atmosphere,and η=η(x,y) is the topography of the earth's surface.For the distribution of vertical velocity,we assume ω(x,y,p)=B(p) (?)(x,y)+C(p) ω_0(x,y),(5)whereB(p)=1-A(p)~2,C(p)=(p-p_1)/(p_0-p_1).(6)Introducing (2) and (5) to (1),multiplying A(p),and then integratingit with respect to p from p_0 to p_1,we find(?)Using again the relations of (2) and (5) and the geostrophic approximationin (Ⅰ)(1),taking steady state and then eliminating (?) from it with (10),we have(?)whereC_1=[R/(gc_p)]ln[p_0/(?)],M=[(4f~2)/(p_0-p_1)][1/(C_2RΓ_p)],C_2=(1/2)[(p_0+3p_1)/(p_0-p_1)]-[(4p_0p_1)/(p_0-p_1)~2]ln[(2p_0)/(p_0+p_1)].The motion is considered as consisting of small perturbations superim-posed upon a basic zonal current (?)+A(p)U_T,and taking geostrophic app-roximation,wo obtained the two required equations:(?)in which β is the variation of Coriolis parameter with latitude.We used the equation (9) and (10) to a rectangular reigon with a mar-ginal cyclicity and with a length equal to that of the latitud circle at 45°and take 1 day as the time unit and the radius of 45° latitude circle aslength unit.By means of Fourier analysis,the solution may be written inthe following form(?)where the topographical influence function Φ_0 and the heating influencefunction Φ_h are respectively defined by the Fourier series (?)As the equation was linearzed, we can put Q_m=0 to find the topographiceffect, and put η=0 to find the effect of heat sources and sinks;whenboth Q_m≠0 and η≠0,we can find the combined influences of heat sour-ces and sinks and topography.For case of winter,we take (?)=15m/s and U_t=13m/s.In the unitsdescribed above,we find (?)=2.87×10~(-1),β=2π,M=231,β/(?)=21.9.We have constructed separately the flow patterns respectively due tothe thermal effect,the topographical effect and the combined effect of themon the westerlies.By examining these patterns we may state the followingpoints on the formation of mean troughs and ridges and jet stream:(1)For the case Q_m=0.There is a trough to the downstream ofmountains and a ridge over the mountains created by the forced ascent ofthe westerly current over the topography.The Tibetan Platean is importanton the formation of the Asiatic mean troughs and ridges.(fig.1) Consi-dering the combined effect of the mountains of Rocky and Greenland,theposition and intensity of the computed mean trough and ridge (fig.6) iswell in agreement with the observation.(fig.4,10) However the effect ofthe forced ascent of the westerly current over the mountains does notgive a jet stream.(2)For the case η=0.Through dynamic processes the large-scaleheat sources and sinks show even larger influences than that of the moun-tains on the midtropospheric flow.The 500 mb trough is located west ofthe heat source,and the ridge west of the heat sink.The jet stream isformed at the south-western part of the heat source.The perturbationpattern of heating and cooling (fig.2,7) is in better agreement with theobserved one than that due to topography.(3)The flow pattern obtained by considering both heat sources andsinks and topography (fig.3,9) is in good agreement with the observedones.The agreement with observation is much better than any one of thefactors considered alone.

本文第二部分根据简单的两层斜压模式,用小扰动分别解出地形、热源的常定扰动和地形与热源的共同扰动.作者得到西藏高原对于东亚平均槽、脊的形成具有一定的作用.洛矶山加上格林兰高地后更能解释北美槽、脊的形成.在夏季由于西风带的北移,只有地形作用也使得平均槽的强度和位置发生变化.热源的扰动作用对平均槽的生成具有更显著的作用,冬季的西风急流和夏季小槽的生成都和热源扰动更有直接的关系.考虑了热源和地形的共同作用后所得的扰动流型更接近了实现.由此作者提出热源和地形作用通过动力过程在大气环流中相互制约的统一性.

Firstly in this paper,the seasonal occurance and geographical distribu-tion of these blocking highs over Eastern Asia are described.Secondly,the preciptation and temperature departures over China during the periodof the blocking in summer are studied.Finally,the effects of locationsof blocking highs on climatology are also discussed.

本文对东亚(100°E以东)地区1951—1956年的阻塞形势进行了分析.结果得出:东亚的阻塞形势六、七月出现得最多,位置多集中在沿海的大陆上,维持的时间多为七天.在阻塞形势下降水区分为三带:一在阻塞高压西侧一在其南面,另一带在副热带高压北缘.温度距平基本上与雨量距平相反.

 
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