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Following the principles of runoffcollecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH).


This technique is used to construct a model of runoff transformation for fragments of the Volga basin.


Methods of the use of radar information in applied hydrology (in particular, for calculation of runoff probability) are developed.


The anthropogenic components of runoff dynamics from drained fields are calculated.


However, some components of the total runoff into the Arctic Ocean feature distinct and fairly complicated disturbances in the homogeneity of runoff variations.

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 The present paper deals with an elementary principle of a new measurement of runoff with very low discharge by means of resistance measuringflow, and the nonlinear FlowVoltage relationships with the resistance measuringflow. A method of linearization handling is provided to make the MeasuringRunoff Flume in a better linear relationship. The analysis of dynamic response charactertics of Resistance Measuringflow Flume is based on system dynamics theory, as a result, system parameters ωn and ζ... The present paper deals with an elementary principle of a new measurement of runoff with very low discharge by means of resistance measuringflow, and the nonlinear FlowVoltage relationships with the resistance measuringflow. A method of linearization handling is provided to make the MeasuringRunoff Flume in a better linear relationship. The analysis of dynamic response charactertics of Resistance Measuringflow Flume is based on system dynamics theory, as a result, system parameters ωn and ζ are obtained for judging regulatingstorage of measuringflow device' The Measuringflow Flume has been applied to measure small discharge in the Hydrologic Runoff Laboratory. As it belongs to instantaneous flowrate measurement method, the runoff hydrography measured is very clear as regards its duration, peak discharge, lag of time, and relevant parameters. In addition, the device has a higher stability of electronic circuit and better signaltonoise ratio, and the problem of electolytic action at electrodes surface due to impurity of the water has been solved, so it is more convenient to make research of the rainfallrunoff relationship in laboratory. Finally, in this paper a comparison of cumulative sum of hydrography from Resistance Measuringflow Flume with cumulative watervolumemethod is given, and satisfactory results have been obtained.  本文就电阻法测流的电压流量非线性关系进行了探讨,提出了线性处理的方法,并设计了具有良好线性关系的测流槽。加上电测线路的高稳定性与测流系统较优的讯噪比,使得实验室降雨迳流模拟实验的分析研究十分方便。另外,还解决了由于水质不纯而导致的电极极化效应。最后,文章给出电阻法测流与体积法的精度对比结果。  This paper gave a preliminary analysis of the characteristic and vari ation regularity of runoff of the Yangtze river in lowflow period (from Dec. to Mar.) , and the effects on the quality of the water of the Huang pu river after the intrusion of sea water.Although rich in water resource the Yangtze river hasn't much discharge during the lowflow period. The total runoff in lowflow period occupies only fifteen per cent of the annual total runoff. The mean monthly discharge in lowflow period... This paper gave a preliminary analysis of the characteristic and vari ation regularity of runoff of the Yangtze river in lowflow period (from Dec. to Mar.) , and the effects on the quality of the water of the Huang pu river after the intrusion of sea water.Although rich in water resource the Yangtze river hasn't much discharge during the lowflow period. The total runoff in lowflow period occupies only fifteen per cent of the annual total runoff. The mean monthly discharge in lowflow period of normal year of 50% frequency is below 15000 M3/sec. The mean monthly discharge of 75% frequency of dry year in Jan.and Feb, is less than 10000 M3/sec. Salinity varies with the quantity of the flow which comes from upstream. It becomes highly sensitive in rivermouth area when the discharge in Da Tong station is 10000 M3/sec. The salinity in rivermouth area will increase repidly if the discharge in Da Tong station is less than 10000 M3/sec. As a result, serious impacts will happen to the water supply both of Shanghai city and the industrial and agricultural bases in rivermouth area. For the planning of water supply in the Yangtze river basin,it is necessary to keep the discharge through Da Ton station above 15000 M3/sec, or at least not less than 10000 M3/sec.  本文对长江枯季(12—3月)径流的特点、变化规律、河口盐水入侵以及对黄浦江水质的影响等进行了初步分析。 长江水量虽然丰富,但枯季径流并不大,枯季径流一般占年径流总量的15％左右。频率50％的平水年各月平均流量都在15000秒立米以下,频率75％的一般少水年枯季1、2月份的月平均流量不足10000秒立米。河口盐度变化随上游来水多少而异,大通站流量在10000秒立米时河口盐度变化敏感,流量再减少河口盐度将急剧增加,便会严重污染河口和黄浦江水质,影响上海市和河口地区的工农业和城市生活用水。因此,在规划长江流域用水时,应使大通站流量在15000秒立米以上,若有困难,至少不能低于10000秒立米。  This paper briefly describes the main characteristics of physical geographic conditions in the riverhead area of the Yangtze River , in the QinghaiXizang Plateau, and deals with the influences of glaciers,cryopedolcgical conditions and geological structures upon stream systems and river regimens .Some regularities of variations of runoff, flood, low water, water temperature and river freeze are involved in the paper.The basic features of flood generation can be analyzed on the basis of relevant physical... This paper briefly describes the main characteristics of physical geographic conditions in the riverhead area of the Yangtze River , in the QinghaiXizang Plateau, and deals with the influences of glaciers,cryopedolcgical conditions and geological structures upon stream systems and river regimens .Some regularities of variations of runoff, flood, low water, water temperature and river freeze are involved in the paper.The basic features of flood generation can be analyzed on the basis of relevant physical geographic conditions in the area. According to observation data and flood investigations, an estimation of flood peak discharge with 100 year recurrences of the rivers in the area is presented for designing the railway and highway bridges.  本文简要介绍了青藏高原长江河源地区冰川,冻土和地质构造对水系发育和河况的影响,初步分析了该地区河流的经流、洪水、枯水、水温和冰情的变化规律。文中着重阐明河流洪水形成的基本特征,并据观测资料和洪水调查资料,探讨了百年一遇洪峰流量的分布规律,该成果可供长江河源地区铁路,公路桥涵设计参照使用。   << 更多相关文摘 
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