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Following the principles of runoffcollecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH).


This technique is used to construct a model of runoff transformation for fragments of the Volga basin.


Methods of the use of radar information in applied hydrology (in particular, for calculation of runoff probability) are developed.


The anthropogenic components of runoff dynamics from drained fields are calculated.


However, some components of the total runoff into the Arctic Ocean feature distinct and fairly complicated disturbances in the homogeneity of runoff variations.

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 This paper consists of four parts as follows: 1. the flood routing of outflow for basin, 2. the genetic unithydrograph, 3. the relation between the three assumptions on unithydrograph and the genetic unithydrograph and 4. the calculation of unithydrodraph for basin which Iacks data. In this paper the study of the genetic unithydrograph is based upon the genetic formulat of runoff founded by M. A. velikanoff and with the help of Muskingum channel storage equation. The calculation of unithydrographs... This paper consists of four parts as follows: 1. the flood routing of outflow for basin, 2. the genetic unithydrograph, 3. the relation between the three assumptions on unithydrograph and the genetic unithydrograph and 4. the calculation of unithydrodraph for basin which Iacks data. In this paper the study of the genetic unithydrograph is based upon the genetic formulat of runoff founded by M. A. velikanoff and with the help of Muskingum channel storage equation. The calculation of unithydrographs by this method only needs three parameters and it is possible to find out the unithydrograph without records of hydrometrie observation of river discharge.  本文包括如下四个方面的问题:(一) 流域出流洪水演算,(二) 流域成因单位线,(三) 成因单位线与单位线基本假定的关系,(四) 无资料地区单位綫的推求。四个问题结成一体,以成因单位线为核心。文中成因单位綫公式的推导系以維虽康诺夫的逕流成因公式为基礎,并借用了馬斯京貢(Mnskingum)槽蓄曲线方程式。使用上述公式計算单位线时只需要三个参数,可无需实测流量記录。上述公式又可用來推求无资料地区的单位綫。  This article proposes a method of variable isochrone for flood computation. It combines the advantages of unithydrograph method and isochrone. It can be used to consider both the nonlinearity and distribution of runoff. It has been applied to the mountainous river for many years, and achieved good results.Combining the variable isochrone for flood computation with the routing flow model of displacement and lag,the functions of the river storage have been further improved. This model can be applied not... This article proposes a method of variable isochrone for flood computation. It combines the advantages of unithydrograph method and isochrone. It can be used to consider both the nonlinearity and distribution of runoff. It has been applied to the mountainous river for many years, and achieved good results.Combining the variable isochrone for flood computation with the routing flow model of displacement and lag,the functions of the river storage have been further improved. This model can be applied not only to mountainous rivers but to rivers of other region, and thus the practical results can be improved.  本文提出了变动等流时线法,它集中了单位线与等流时线两类方法的主要优点,同时考虑雨洪汇流的非线性问题和空间分布问题.此法多年来在山区河流应用,效果良好. 变动等流时线与移滞河道汇流模型有机地结合,显著改进了变动等流时线法的河网调蓄作用,扩大了应用范围,提高了实用效果.  The Yangtze River Estuary is an estuary with large amount of runoff and strong tide. The average discharge of the Yangtze River is only 29,400 m3/s, while the average discharge of flood tide may get to 227,400 m3/s. The amount of sediment is about 483 million tons/yr. The dynamic interaction of these two strong forces leads to form the Yangtze River Estuary. According to the regional geological and geomorphological characteristics and their effects on heavy minerals of sediment, the source of the sediment... The Yangtze River Estuary is an estuary with large amount of runoff and strong tide. The average discharge of the Yangtze River is only 29,400 m3/s, while the average discharge of flood tide may get to 227,400 m3/s. The amount of sediment is about 483 million tons/yr. The dynamic interaction of these two strong forces leads to form the Yangtze River Estuary. According to the regional geological and geomorphological characteristics and their effects on heavy minerals of sediment, the source of the sediment at the Yangtze River Estuary can be considered as coming from 3 supplying regions, namely, the Yangtze River upstream(x1),the abandoned delta of the Yellow River at the north of Jiangsu Province (x2) and the Hangzhou Bay (x3). The converging region is the Yangtze River Estuary (y). Sampling stations are set up in the supplying regions and the converging region. According to the statistics of heavy minerals of nearly 20,000 grains of sediment collected during geological and geomorphological investigations, the author holds that heavy mineralogical characters of sediment of the Yangtze River Estuary are governed by the geological and geomorphological conditions of the watershed. According to the principle of equilibrium of sediment load, equations of the heavy mineralogical classification are presented.By means of Least Squares Method, a normal equation for calculating the converging percentages from all the supplying regions is given below:Where are the coefficients related toheavy minerals. The result shows that 96.1% of the sediment comes from the Yangtze River upstream, 7.0% from the abandoned delta of the Yellow River and3.1% from the Hangzhou Bay.When the converging percentage of sediment from the Yangtze River upstream is known, and the total amount of sediment at Datong station is also known as 483 million tons per year, the amount of sediment at the Yangtze River Estuary (d>0.01mm) is computed, which is 359 million tons per year. This value agrees quite well with the value of 349.4 million tons per year calculated from the topographic maps of 1915 and 1963 of the Yangtze River Estuary.  根据长江口及其补给区的大量泥沙的重矿物鉴定表明,沙样中重矿含量百分数较为稳定,故能用矿物分析法计算出长江口泥沙(d>0.01毫米)的来源与数量.计算表明有96.1％来自长江补给区.据长江大通站多年平均的年输沙量推算,长江口的泥沙量为3.590亿吨/年.经1915年和1963年的长江口实测地形图比较量算的验证,两者相差2.7％.本研究法对于河口无泥沙测验与地形测量资料的情况下,研究泥沙来源与数量具有理论与实际的意义.   << 更多相关文摘 
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