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development and
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  开发
     Researches on Web-based Application Development and Database Integration Technology
     基于Web的应用开发和数据库集成技术研究
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     Research on the Development and Deployment of Macromanpower
     宏观人力资源开发与配置研究
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     Development and Study of Micromanipulator with Two-Finger
     双指微动操作器开发与研究
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     Research on Methodology of Product Development and Process Management in Integrated Environment
     集成环境下产品开发方法及过程管理研究
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     Study on TGP Resettlement with Development and Sustainable Development
     三峡工程开发性移民与可持续发展研究
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  发展
     China's Bond Market:Development and Innovation
     中国债券市场:发展与创新
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     The Study on the Food Development and Regional Comparison in China
     中国食物发展与区域比较研究
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     Economic Development and Trade-regionalization
     经济发展与贸易区域化:一个新兴古典理论框架及其启示
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     On the Interrelations Between Financial Development and Economic Growth in China
     中国金融发展与经济增长研究
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     Role of Islet Beta-cell Apoptosis in the Development and Immune Intervention of Diabetes in NOD Mice
     胰岛β细胞凋亡在NOD鼠糖尿病发生发展及免疫干预中的作用研究
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     Agricultural Sustainable Development and Agricultural Mechanization
     农业可持续发展与农业机械化
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     Experimental Study on the Development and Control of Stress Cracks of Rough Rice in Drying
     稻谷干燥应力裂纹生成扩展及抑制的试验研究和机理分析
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     The Development and Application of the Area Soil Information System--A Case Study of Chongqing
     区域土壤信息系统的建立与应用——以重庆市为例
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     Effects of Root Zone Temperature on Growth and Development and Physiological and Biochemical Metabolism of Cucumber in Solar Greenhouse
     根区温度对日光温室黄瓜生长发育和生理生化代谢的影响
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     Studies on Follicular Development and Atresia and Their Regulatory Mechanism in Goat
     山羊卵泡发育、闭锁及其调控机理的研究
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  development and
The research results provide theories for the development and application of the embedded FBG sensors.
      
According to the trends in quantum systems control development, the paper predicts the future trends of its development and applications.
      
Influence of host plant species on the development and reproduction of hawthorn spider mites
      
Inhibitory effects of alkaloids from Sophora alopecuroids on feeding, development and reproduction of Clostera anastomosis
      
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In order to study the changes in vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and sugar content both in developing and in mature pods and seeds of garden peas, three varieties were used in this experiment. They are "large-pod of Canton", a variety mainly used for its large edible pods; "white-flower of Hangchow", mainly used for its fresh seeds; and Alaska, an excellent canning variety. Vitamin C, reducing sugar, and total sugar content of pods and seeds of each variety were analyzed throughout the development and ripening...

In order to study the changes in vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and sugar content both in developing and in mature pods and seeds of garden peas, three varieties were used in this experiment. They are "large-pod of Canton", a variety mainly used for its large edible pods; "white-flower of Hangchow", mainly used for its fresh seeds; and Alaska, an excellent canning variety. Vitamin C, reducing sugar, and total sugar content of pods and seeds of each variety were analyzed throughout the development and ripening of the fruits, once every 4 to 6 days. It was found that the vitamin C content of both the pods and seeds gradually decreased witn increasing maturity. In the early stage of fruit development, either the pods or seeds contained 40-60mg. per 100 grams of fresh material; whereas in the mature pods or seeds, there only 5-15mg. per 100 grams were found. It is interesting that there are likely to be the same tendency on the changes in vitamin C content in the pods and that in the seeds. No matter in what stage of development, the vitamin C content in the pods of the variety "Large pod" was a little higher than that in the seeds, while in that of the variety "white flower", however, the finding was reversed. Both reducing sugar and total sugar contont decreased as the peas advanced in maturity. But the decrease in sugar content in the pods, however, was not so rapid as in the seeds. In the mature seeds, there was only trace or even almost no reducing sugar; while in the pods of the same stage of development, there about 1.5 per cent of reducing sugar were found. Since both the vitamin C and sugar content decreased gradually with increasing maturity, therefore, it is recommended that the garden peas of the varieties herein studied should be harvested within 20 days after flowering under Hangchow condition in order to obtain higher content of these chemicals.

本文用了三个蔬菜用豌豆品种为研究分析的材料。一个是廣州的大莢豌豆,这是以豆莢为主要食用的的品种;又一个是杭州的白花豌豆,这是以新鮮种子为主要食用的品种;第三个是“阿拉斯加”豌豆,这是有名的罐头制造用品种。这些豌豆在杭州气候环境下,都是在4月下旬,5月上旬先后开花。开花后6—8天,开始分析它們的豆莢及种子的維生素丙(抗坏血酸)还元糖及全糖的含量。每隔4—6天分析一次,直到完全成熟为止。本試驗所用的三个品种,在豆莢及种子的發育及成熟过程中,維生素丙的含量都是愈成熟而愈少。在發育的初期,不論莢果或种子,每100克新鮮物重中都可以含有40—60毫克的維生素丙,但到了完全成熟时,僅有5—15毫克了。种子中和莢果中的維生素丙含量的变化,差不多有平行的趋向。而且大莢豌豆(軟莢种)的莢果中的維生素丙含量比种子中的为多;而杭州白花豌豆(硬莢种),則莢果中的比种子中的少。这是符合于这兩个品种的利用方式的。至于全糖或还元糖,也都是愈到成熟愈少。但豆莢中的全糖及还元糖,在發育及成熟过程中,虽然也稍为降低,但沒有象在种子中減低的迅速,而且比种子中的含量为多。随伴着种子中的糖在成熟过程中的迅速減少,淀粉迅速的增加,硬度也因而增加。种子中...

本文用了三个蔬菜用豌豆品种为研究分析的材料。一个是廣州的大莢豌豆,这是以豆莢为主要食用的的品种;又一个是杭州的白花豌豆,这是以新鮮种子为主要食用的品种;第三个是“阿拉斯加”豌豆,这是有名的罐头制造用品种。这些豌豆在杭州气候环境下,都是在4月下旬,5月上旬先后开花。开花后6—8天,开始分析它們的豆莢及种子的維生素丙(抗坏血酸)还元糖及全糖的含量。每隔4—6天分析一次,直到完全成熟为止。本試驗所用的三个品种,在豆莢及种子的發育及成熟过程中,維生素丙的含量都是愈成熟而愈少。在發育的初期,不論莢果或种子,每100克新鮮物重中都可以含有40—60毫克的維生素丙,但到了完全成熟时,僅有5—15毫克了。种子中和莢果中的維生素丙含量的变化,差不多有平行的趋向。而且大莢豌豆(軟莢种)的莢果中的維生素丙含量比种子中的为多;而杭州白花豌豆(硬莢种),則莢果中的比种子中的少。这是符合于这兩个品种的利用方式的。至于全糖或还元糖,也都是愈到成熟愈少。但豆莢中的全糖及还元糖,在發育及成熟过程中,虽然也稍为降低,但沒有象在种子中減低的迅速,而且比种子中的含量为多。随伴着种子中的糖在成熟过程中的迅速減少,淀粉迅速的增加,硬度也因而增加。种子中的还元糖含量,在接近成熟时,只有微量的存在,甚至沒有。由于維生素丙及各种糖类在成熟过程中迅速減低,因而在農業技術上不宜在开花后20天才進行采收。采收越迟,作为蔬菜食用的品質就愈低。而如何选擇适当的采收时期,是保証豌豆具有丰富的营养成分的主要条件。

The roles of the natural development and some properties of the soilsin this area are briefly discussed as follows:The soils are saline and calcareous in nature,in which over 70% of thetotal soluble salts are sodium chloride.Slight to moderate alkalinizationmay be developed,while the total soluble salt contents exceed 0.2%;butgenerally,there is no NaCO_3 present.The ground water table in this areais usally high,and the quantity and constituents of the salts in groundwater are directly varied with and influenced...

The roles of the natural development and some properties of the soilsin this area are briefly discussed as follows:The soils are saline and calcareous in nature,in which over 70% of thetotal soluble salts are sodium chloride.Slight to moderate alkalinizationmay be developed,while the total soluble salt contents exceed 0.2%;butgenerally,there is no NaCO_3 present.The ground water table in this areais usally high,and the quantity and constituents of the salts in groundwater are directly varied with and influenced by that contained in the abovesoils.The saline and alkali properties of soils in this area are originatedfrom the parent materials,through the action of the sea water when theywere deposited.As soon as the sea water ceased to affect,the soils as wellas the ground water are gradurally desalinized by natural leaching and thisprocess will be strengthened by the biological activities.As the desalinization of the soils is proceeded further,the ratio ofNa~+/Ca~(++)+Mg~(++)in the soil solution decreased and the amount of the exchan-geable Na on the soil colloidal complex is finally lowered.It is evident thatdesalinization also introduces the dealkalinization of the soils in this area;there is no hazard of strong alkalinization of the soils taken place throughleaching.

本文简要地说明了江苏省沿海地区盐渍土壤的自然发生过程及盐渍特性转化的规律,文中主要论点,可初步归纳如下:1、本区域的土壤,发育于盐渍性的冲积母质,土层中富含以氯化钠为主的可溶性盐类,并呈一定的“碱性”。土壤碱性表现在两方面:一方面是土壤胶体表面存在有较多的吸附性钠,另方面表现在本身具有较高的pH 值。2、在自然发生过程中,土壤盐渍性为地质过程遗留的影响;随受自然降水淋盐,河沟排水排盐及生物作用的影响,开始“脱盐、脱碱”和肥力积累过程,发育成为本区内现存的各种不同盐渍程度的土壤。3、随着土壤脱盐作用的进行,土壤盐渍的组成在变化;主要是可溶性盐阴离子中钠离子的含量淋失较速,最后降低了土壤溶液中Na~+/Ca~(++)比率。由于这种盐渍组成的改变,土壤胶体上吸收性Na~+也相应的降低,从而导致土壤的脱碱作用。因此本区土壤的脱盐不致引起土壤碱化。4、在自然发生过程中,本区域盐渍土的脱盐过程,一直是在潜水位较高的情况下进行的。在脱盐过程中,潜水位经常在临界水位以内,为本区自然脱盐过程中,最大特点;潜水动能和土壤的脱盐过程,存在着许多内在的联系。在一定地区内,一定盐渍程度、盐渍特性的土壤,则常有和其相适应的矿化潜水类型。...

本文简要地说明了江苏省沿海地区盐渍土壤的自然发生过程及盐渍特性转化的规律,文中主要论点,可初步归纳如下:1、本区域的土壤,发育于盐渍性的冲积母质,土层中富含以氯化钠为主的可溶性盐类,并呈一定的“碱性”。土壤碱性表现在两方面:一方面是土壤胶体表面存在有较多的吸附性钠,另方面表现在本身具有较高的pH 值。2、在自然发生过程中,土壤盐渍性为地质过程遗留的影响;随受自然降水淋盐,河沟排水排盐及生物作用的影响,开始“脱盐、脱碱”和肥力积累过程,发育成为本区内现存的各种不同盐渍程度的土壤。3、随着土壤脱盐作用的进行,土壤盐渍的组成在变化;主要是可溶性盐阴离子中钠离子的含量淋失较速,最后降低了土壤溶液中Na~+/Ca~(++)比率。由于这种盐渍组成的改变,土壤胶体上吸收性Na~+也相应的降低,从而导致土壤的脱碱作用。因此本区土壤的脱盐不致引起土壤碱化。4、在自然发生过程中,本区域盐渍土的脱盐过程,一直是在潜水位较高的情况下进行的。在脱盐过程中,潜水位经常在临界水位以内,为本区自然脱盐过程中,最大特点;潜水动能和土壤的脱盐过程,存在着许多内在的联系。在一定地区内,一定盐渍程度、盐渍特性的土壤,则常有和其相适应的矿化潜水类型。在自然发生过程中,随土壤的脱盐和盐渍特性的转化,潜水似亦随之发生相应的淡化和化学性质的变化。二者转化趋势,大致相符。彼此间的关系,是互相依存、互相制约的,在不断运动的过程中,似先有土壤的脱盐,而生导向潜水的淡化;但就土壤脱盐的过程言,本身同时又是潜水淡化的结果。5、在土壤脱盐的过程中,土壤盐分的动能比较复杂,一方面是全区土壤不断地脱盐,另方面是在一定的条件下,又可产生局部地区土壤表层的盐渍化。前者为本区盐渍土壤自然发生过程的实质,后者为临时性现象。此种现象,最终亦必随同潜水的转向淡化而逐渐消除。

The F_1 of Shorthorn×Mongolian cross adapts itself very well to the environmental conditions of the northern part of Hopei Province.They are strong-built, with low succeptibility to diseases. The F_1 has highly improved conformation over the Mongolian cattle, being more symmetrical, with refined head, increased body width; back and loins are straight, wide and long; ribs well-sprung, length of legs increased.They are more meaty than the Mongolian cattle.But their hind quarters are still not well developed and...

The F_1 of Shorthorn×Mongolian cross adapts itself very well to the environmental conditions of the northern part of Hopei Province.They are strong-built, with low succeptibility to diseases. The F_1 has highly improved conformation over the Mongolian cattle, being more symmetrical, with refined head, increased body width; back and loins are straight, wide and long; ribs well-sprung, length of legs increased.They are more meaty than the Mongolian cattle.But their hind quarters are still not well developed and rather narrow, some of them with sloping and ridge-shaped hips. The udders of the F_1 cows are better developed, with thicker and more curved milk veins, and longer teats.The hair of the crossbred cattle is short and lustrous.The predominant coat color is red or roan, cattle of black, black and white, yellow, yellow and white colors are next numerous, while those of brown, white, steel grey, and wild cat are still less in number. The development and growth of F_1 attained a higher level.Average birth weight of bull calves is 25.13kg, and of heifer calves 23.14kg, they increased by 31.36% and 32.46% respectively than the Mongolian calves.Their weight at 6 months increased by 26.12% and 32.48% respectively, at 12 months by 65.85 and 90.10% respectively.Average weight of F_1 cows at 1st freshening is 399.04kg, 2nd freshening 405.80kg, 3rd freshening 436.00kg, an increase of 41.75%, 26.54% and 31.92% as compared with Mongolian cows at respective freshenings.F_1 bulls at 3 years of age weigh 577.5kg, at 4 years 750.0kg. The height at withers of mature bulls is 141.00cm on the average, body length 175.00cm, heart girth 215.0cm, increased by 17.50%, 17.69% and 20.14% respectively.The average height at withers of mature cows is 124.61cm, body length 146.17cm, heart girth 181.71cm, increased by 1198%, 10.40% and 10.03% respectively. Average length of lactation period of F_1 cows is 267.82 days, an increase of 108.24 days.Average production of milk is: 1st lactation 1,625.25kg, 2nd lactation 1,977.53kg, 3rd lactation 2,342.43kg, increased by 290.36%, 285.27% and 302.22% respectively as compared with Mongolian cows.Cows with milk production over 2,000kg at 1st lactation amounted to 30.80% of the total number of cows, the highest producer gave 3,337.2kg.Average fat content is 4.60%, they range from 3.93% to 5.5%.

短蒙一代杂种牛,对察北地区自然条件的适应性良好,生活力强,体格健壮,疾病较少。短蒙一代杂种牛在体型外貌方面比蒙古牛有了很大程度的改善,全身结构均称、头清秀、体躯宽度显著增加、斜尻有了改善、背腰平宽长、肋骨开张、四肢增高、肌肉组织亦较蒙古牛丰满充实。但后躯仍嫌狭小,有的牛仍显现耕尻和屋脊状尻。一代杂种母牛乳房增大、乳静脉变粗、有弯曲、乳头长度增加。被毛短、有光泽。毛色以红、红白色为数最多,黑、黑白,黄、黄白色次之,狸、褐、白、青等色较少。短蒙一代杂种牛的生长发育较快,公犊平均初生体重为95.13公斤,母犊为93.14公斤,比蒙古牛分别提高31.36%与39.46%,6个月龄体重提高39.48%与96.12%,12个月龄体重提高90.10%与65.85%。短蒙一代杂种母牛平均体重第一产399.04公斤,第二产405.80公斤,第三产436.00公斤,比蒙古牛分别提高41.75%、96.54%与31.92%。一代杂种公牛3岁体重为577.50公斤,4岁为750.0公斤。短蒙一代杂种牛各年龄体格较蒙古牛为大,成年公牛鬐甲高141.0厘米,斜体长 175.0厘米,胸围215.0厘米,较蒙古牛分别增加17.50%、17....

短蒙一代杂种牛,对察北地区自然条件的适应性良好,生活力强,体格健壮,疾病较少。短蒙一代杂种牛在体型外貌方面比蒙古牛有了很大程度的改善,全身结构均称、头清秀、体躯宽度显著增加、斜尻有了改善、背腰平宽长、肋骨开张、四肢增高、肌肉组织亦较蒙古牛丰满充实。但后躯仍嫌狭小,有的牛仍显现耕尻和屋脊状尻。一代杂种母牛乳房增大、乳静脉变粗、有弯曲、乳头长度增加。被毛短、有光泽。毛色以红、红白色为数最多,黑、黑白,黄、黄白色次之,狸、褐、白、青等色较少。短蒙一代杂种牛的生长发育较快,公犊平均初生体重为95.13公斤,母犊为93.14公斤,比蒙古牛分别提高31.36%与39.46%,6个月龄体重提高39.48%与96.12%,12个月龄体重提高90.10%与65.85%。短蒙一代杂种母牛平均体重第一产399.04公斤,第二产405.80公斤,第三产436.00公斤,比蒙古牛分别提高41.75%、96.54%与31.92%。一代杂种公牛3岁体重为577.50公斤,4岁为750.0公斤。短蒙一代杂种牛各年龄体格较蒙古牛为大,成年公牛鬐甲高141.0厘米,斜体长 175.0厘米,胸围215.0厘米,较蒙古牛分别增加17.50%、17.69%与20.04%;成年母牛鬐甲高124.61厘米,斜体长146.17厘米,胸围181.71厘米,此蒙古牛分别提高11.98%、10.40%与10.03%。短蒙一代杂种牛泌乳期平均为267.82天,此蒙古牛增长108.42天,泌乳300天以上者占39.03%,比蒙古牛增多5.18倍。平均泌乳量第一产为1,625.25公斤,第二产为1,977.53公斤,第三产以上为2,342.43公斤,此蒙古牛分别提高290.36%、285.27%与302.22%。第一产泌乳量在2,000公斤以上者有30.80%,最高达3,337.2公斤。平均乳脂率为4.60%(范围3.93—5.5%)。

 
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