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  river-crossing
     GPS RTK Technology Application in River-crossing Leveling for Location of Highway Line
     GPS RTK技术在公路规划定线跨河水准测量中的应用
短句来源
     Applying Helmert-WF Variance Component Estimation to River-Crossing Leveling
     Helmert方差分量估计在跨河水准测量中的应用
短句来源
     Combining with the actual situation of the establishment of C class GPS control network and third order river-crossing leveling,the geodetic height differences of GPS survey are compared and analyzed with height differences of third order river-crossing leveling,some of conclusions are gotten.
     结合滨州市C级GPS控制网的建立和三等跨河水准测量的实际情况,将GPS所测大地高差与三等水准测量高差进行比较和分析,得出一些结论。
短句来源
     Study on sediment of river-crossing works:Mid-route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project
     南水北调中线跨河工程的泥沙问题研究
短句来源
     The problems of river bed deformation and sediment are directly related to the safety of river-crossing works.
     河流泥沙及河床变形问题直接关系到跨河建筑物的安全性.
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  over river
     Puts forward a method to analyze the influences of new bridge over river on embankment damage and gives an example,which provide scientific basis for the protection and management of(embankment.)
     针对跨河桥梁对河道堤防产生不利影响的情况,笔者提出了拟建跨河桥梁对河道堤防影响分析的方法路线,并用实例进行了影响分析,为河道堤防保护及管理提供了科学依据.
短句来源
     The results of the research indicate that the assembled highway bridge steel truss is an effective means to resolve the common problems of falsework over river for construction of cast-in-situ prestressed concrete continuous girders.
     研究表明,采用装配式公路钢桥桁架解决跨河预应力混凝土连续梁现浇混凝土施工支架问题是有效的。
短句来源
     Research of Falsework Erected over River for Construction of Continuous Girder Bridge
     连续梁桥跨河施工支架研究
短句来源
     This article presents a point that we can carry through the fourth grade trigonometry level surveying at water area with long distance (about 2km) over river.
     本文介绍在水网和长距离(2Km左右)跨江跨河地区,进行四等三角高程测量的试验研究。
短句来源
     Brief Introduction to Impact of Buildings over River & across River to Flood Control of River Channel
     浅谈跨河、拦河建筑物对河道防洪的影响及其对策
短句来源
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  across river
     Brief Introduction to Impact of Buildings over River & across River to Flood Control of River Channel
     浅谈跨河、拦河建筑物对河道防洪的影响及其对策
短句来源
     Analysis on the level precision surveyed across river with the electromegnetic range finder
     电磁波测距仪跨河水准精度分析
短句来源
     The level pricision surveyed across river with the range finder is analyzed, The survey precision with the method can meet 3 clase of engindeering level pricision, and may possibly reach 3 or 4 class of national level survey precision.
     对测距仪跨河水准测量的精度进行了分析,该方法的测量精度可以达到工程三等水准的精度要求,也有可能达到国家三、四等水准测量的要求。
短句来源
  cross river
     One new method of the cross river leveling
     跨河水准测量的一种新方法
短句来源
     This article puts forward the application of RTK in Cross River Leveling ,analyzes the mam factors of influencing the precision of real-time process ,the carrying out principle of RTK in the Cross River Leveling ,results comparing ,precision analyzing . Finally it gives any helpful proposal.
     提出了GPS RTK技术在跨河水准测量中的新应用,分析了影响RTK高程实时解算精度的主要因素,RTK技术应用于跨河水准测量的实施原则、成果比较及精度分析,并提出了一些有益的建议。
短句来源

 

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  over river
The bridges over river Chenab and Anji Khad are designed with the largest steel arch being built in India.
      
The enclosure was attached as a retrofit to this viaduct over River Tees, rail lines and roads.
      
  across river
Most populations possessed unique haplotypes, few being shared across river systems.
      
Analysis of spatial patterns has provided considerable insight into environmental heterogeneity across river corridors and is an essential prelude to examining dynamic interactions.
      
A 250-km-per-h travel speed across river valleys and through all the geological strata in the middle of Germany does not allow much deviation.
      
The markers offered in Chapter 4 and detailed in Annex 1 address issues that link across river basins and coasts.
      
The stone arch bridge is an ancient structural type developed by Roman engineers to carry roads and aqueducts across river valleys.
      
  cross river
Water quality assessment in Akpabuyo, Cross River basin, South-Eastern Nigeria
      
Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria
      
The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age.
      
First, China's way of transition is a ``gradual trial and error'' approach without a transition program set for long term but flexible and gradual way which is called a ``touch stones to cross river'' approach.
      
A seminal study of the dynamics of a mudskipper (Periophthalmus papilio) population in the Cross River, Nigeria
      
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  其他


Internationally, the "visual method" of preventing ship collisions replaced the "inquiring method" during the 40s, and in the 70s the traffic seperation schemes were further introduced. However, oar country is still using the "inquiring method" for preventing inland water collisions. This being the case, failure to make out or receive another ship's signals can only result in guessing one possibility out of two. In most collisions, no ship tried to sail north in order to collide with the other ship while it...

Internationally, the "visual method" of preventing ship collisions replaced the "inquiring method" during the 40s, and in the 70s the traffic seperation schemes were further introduced. However, oar country is still using the "inquiring method" for preventing inland water collisions. This being the case, failure to make out or receive another ship's signals can only result in guessing one possibility out of two. In most collisions, no ship tried to sail north in order to collide with the other ship while it knew the other was sailing north to keep out of by the way. The collision was due to a wrong guess. Resorting to the slack subsidiary waterway, or, when it is absent, by the piloting regulations, the upstream burden vessel can sail along either the southern bank or the northern bank, and sometimes can even sail from the southern bank to the northern bank before passing the mark for crossing the river. With so many possible waterways, the downstream ship can hardly guess how to make way for the upstream ship. The good navigation conditions in the lower reaches of the Changjiang River have provided many waterways for the upstream ships, and not surprisingly, more collisions. Therefore, it is necessary to retain only one rational and lawful waterway by giving up the rest. Thus, the pilot's route, the navigation marks and ship's waymaking shall not contradict one another, and the upstream ship and the downstream ship shall have their respective waterway.This method suggested above seems to be a feasible reform which is based on the current rules, but also represents the "visual method" and the traffic seperation schemes. This can be summarised as follows:The upstream vessel sails along the curve,The downstream vessel sails in the middle of the river.Keep to the starboard side while crossing the river,And go upstream to reach the right bank.While passing the section for crossing the river,Wait patiently and avoid collision.

国际避碰规则早在四十年代,就摒弃“征询式”避碰,改用了直观式避碰。七十年代又进一步提出分道通航制。但是我国内河避碰规则至今仍沿用“征询式”避碰,征询的汽笛或信号,一旦彼此没有听见或收不到信号,征询式避碰就变成单方面的猜测,像赌单双(左右)的避碰了。绝大多数的碰撞事故,还没有哪一方面在知道对方往北边让后,自己也要往北边去碰它,当然是单双赌输了,双方让到一块儿去了。在缓流“副航道”的掩护下,或即使没有副航道的地方,颁布的引航图志等规定:逆流义务船既可靠南岸也可以靠北岸上驶,有时还要从南岸横越到北岸(指没有过河标处)。这样多的航路,使顺流船无从推测和会让。长江下游优越的航运条件为逆流船的多条航路,开了方便之门,所以下游碰撞事故更突出也就不奇怪了。因此取消逆流船的多条航路,剩一条合理合法的航路,统一船舶引航路线、导航标志与船舶会让三者的脱节现象,使顺逆流船各有一条合理的航路,也就能分道扬镳了。规定顺、逆流船各有一条合理合法的航路是在现行航标规范基础上最保守易行的一点改革,也就是内河避碰以过河标为分界线的直观式避碰或分道通航制。可用一首卅个字的五言打油诗加以概括,诗曰: 逆流沿陡岸,顺流走中间,跨河(感潮)...

国际避碰规则早在四十年代,就摒弃“征询式”避碰,改用了直观式避碰。七十年代又进一步提出分道通航制。但是我国内河避碰规则至今仍沿用“征询式”避碰,征询的汽笛或信号,一旦彼此没有听见或收不到信号,征询式避碰就变成单方面的猜测,像赌单双(左右)的避碰了。绝大多数的碰撞事故,还没有哪一方面在知道对方往北边让后,自己也要往北边去碰它,当然是单双赌输了,双方让到一块儿去了。在缓流“副航道”的掩护下,或即使没有副航道的地方,颁布的引航图志等规定:逆流义务船既可靠南岸也可以靠北岸上驶,有时还要从南岸横越到北岸(指没有过河标处)。这样多的航路,使顺流船无从推测和会让。长江下游优越的航运条件为逆流船的多条航路,开了方便之门,所以下游碰撞事故更突出也就不奇怪了。因此取消逆流船的多条航路,剩一条合理合法的航路,统一船舶引航路线、导航标志与船舶会让三者的脱节现象,使顺逆流船各有一条合理的航路,也就能分道扬镳了。规定顺、逆流船各有一条合理合法的航路是在现行航标规范基础上最保守易行的一点改革,也就是内河避碰以过河标为分界线的直观式避碰或分道通航制。可用一首卅个字的五言打油诗加以概括,诗曰: 逆流沿陡岸,顺流走中间,跨河(感潮)靠右边。逆流到右岸,进出跨河段,等待莫交叉。

With the development of communication and transportation, many bridges have been constructed across the alluvial rivers. Backwater caused by the flow throuth width constrictionis involves in designing including the size of opening, elevation of the low chord of the bridge, and size of the inundated flood plain area.The question whether scale models were .suitable for the study of streams with large width to depth ratio was controversial in the previous investigators. It is necessary to clarify this question...

With the development of communication and transportation, many bridges have been constructed across the alluvial rivers. Backwater caused by the flow throuth width constrictionis involves in designing including the size of opening, elevation of the low chord of the bridge, and size of the inundated flood plain area.The question whether scale models were .suitable for the study of streams with large width to depth ratio was controversial in the previous investigators. It is necessary to clarify this question in the modeling of alluvial rivers with wide valleys.According to theory and principle of hydraulic models, basing on the previous studies, it is proposed that the method of generalized and serial modeling is adopted, and the fundamental principle of the model and its design method are introduced. The experimenatal results have been compared with the field data, and a rather good result is obsained. It will be seen that the fundamental principle of modelling is correct and its design method is also very effective.

随着交通运输事业的发展,有大量跨河工程修建在平原宽浅河流上,因水流宽度受压缩而引起的上下游水面急剧变形,牵涉到建筑物跨度和长度、底部高程和基础深度,以及回水淹没高度和范围. 采用概化水流模型能否对宽深比很大的宽压缩水流进行一般性研究,国内外都有人持不同的见解,这个问题在文中进行了论证. 根据集合理论和相似原理,本文提出一种概化系列模型,介绍了它的基本原理和设计方法,并把试验成果同野外资料对比,取得了满意的结果.

City centre is the symbol and growing core of itself.The formation and development of multi-centre of Wuhan has its own specific historical sources.Combining with the urban area feature of striding across the river as well as the demands arid backgrounds of city development,this paper explores the multi- centre's advantages and disadvantages of Wuhan at present.At the same time,the essay takes up some tentative ideas for distribution of Wuhan centre districts,composing contents and spatial composing benefits

城市中心区是城市的象征与生长核。武汉市多中心的形成与发展有其特定的历史渊源,本文结合武汉市跨河越江的地域形态及城市发展的要求与背景,探索了武汉市现行多中心的利弊。同时,对武汉市中心区的位置分布,内容构成与空间组织效能提出了初步设想。

 
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