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  influent
The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent, the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.
      
Under deficient influent alkalinity, when compared to OAA, the AAA process improved treatment efficiency and effluent quality with NH4+-N in the effluent below the detection limit.
      
If the lack of alkalinity in the influent was less than 1/3 of that needed, there is no need for external alkalinity addition and treatment efficiency was the same as that under sufficient influent alkalinity.
      
Even if the lack of alkalinity in the influent was more than 1/3 of that needed, the AAA process was an optimal strategy because it reduced the external alkalinity addition and saved on operational cost.
      
The results showed that NPEOs and its metabolites existed in all the samples of the influent, effluent, and sludge.
      
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  the influent
The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent, the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.
      
If the lack of alkalinity in the influent was less than 1/3 of that needed, there is no need for external alkalinity addition and treatment efficiency was the same as that under sufficient influent alkalinity.
      
Even if the lack of alkalinity in the influent was more than 1/3 of that needed, the AAA process was an optimal strategy because it reduced the external alkalinity addition and saved on operational cost.
      
The results showed that NPEOs and its metabolites existed in all the samples of the influent, effluent, and sludge.
      
The results showed that the initial specific phosphorus release rate increased with the high concentration of the short-chain volatile fatty acids ratio in the influent, and sufficient phosphorus was released by DPB.
      
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  inlet water
Borehole surface temperature and water temperature distribution were simulated on the condition of continuous operation for 8 h in winter with inlet water temperature being 10 °C.
      
Inlet water mass flowrate and temperature together with inlet steam temperature and superheating have been investigated as experimental variables.
      
The experimental procedures are conducted by keeping the inlet water temperature at a pre-selected value, adjusting the water volumetric flow rate at a specific value and varying the air velocity.
      
As input data, the model uses meteorological data, water balance in the field, nitrogen concentration in inlet water, and the nitrogen contribution of applied fertilizer.
      
The analysis has been conducted for four different kinds of internally grooved tubes and three different mean inlet water velocities.
      
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  influent water
Patches of Vallisneria americana had variable capacity to maintain super-saturated oxygen concentrations; patch size accounted for some of the variability whereas larger-scale differences in main-channel influent water also contributed.
      
coli was absent, or occurred at very low concentrations, in the influent water, but was present in the effluent water, in the sediment, and at one fish farm also in fish faeces.
      
The concentrations of faecal streptococci (FS) in the influent water were low, but strains isolated were identified as group D streptococci.
      
Both HRAPs were subjected to thesame environmental conditions of solar radiation, airtemperature and influent water quality.
      
As was discussed previously, NO 3 was almost completely removed from the influent water.
      
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  其他


This paper deals with the influence of the concentration, flow rate and pH-value of industrial chromic waste water on the exchange effect of granulated NCLS3 in the treatment of the chromic waste water, and deter mines the optimum conditions of its regeneration.

本文研究了粒状NCLS3在处理工业含铬废水过程中,进水浓度、流速、PH值等因素对其交换效果的影响,并确定了最佳的再生条件。此外,在处理天津市津西车俱厂漂洗水的试验中,证明粒状NCLS3的效果也是很好的。

In a steadily operating vertical secondary clarifier, there exist a sludge-water interface and a compressive interface and four zones of different settling characteristics :.a clarified zone, a flocculent settling zone, a transition zone and a compressive zone. For a given sludge, the position of sludge-water interface depands on the upflow velocity , and the position of the compressive interface depands on the concentration and the velocity of under - flow . Generally, the sludge - water interface which contributes...

In a steadily operating vertical secondary clarifier, there exist a sludge-water interface and a compressive interface and four zones of different settling characteristics :.a clarified zone, a flocculent settling zone, a transition zone and a compressive zone. For a given sludge, the position of sludge-water interface depands on the upflow velocity , and the position of the compressive interface depands on the concentration and the velocity of under - flow . Generally, the sludge - water interface which contributes to clarifying ability is primarily influenced by the surface area of the tank , and the height of water surface above the inlet is the secondary factor . As to the compressive interface which contributes to compressive ability , the depth below the inlet is the primary and the surface area is the secondary factor.

稳定运行的竖流式二沉池中存在着泥水界面和压缩界面,以及沉淀性质不同的四个区,在污泥性质一定的条件下,泥水界面位置由上升流速决定,压缩界面位置由底流浓度和底流速度决定。一般地说,对于前者,面积是第一位因素,进水口之上高度是第二位因素,构成澄清能力;对于后者,进水口之下高度是第一位因素,面积是第二位因素,构成浓缩能力。

In the paper, two different processes, granular activated carbon adsorption ("C"process) and Ozonation-activated carbon adsorption ("O_3 + C"process), were studied experimentally for removal of three forms of nitrogen from potable water on a comparative way. The results indicate that the ozonation is capable of oxidizing organic nitrogen into NH_3-N, and NO_2~--N into NO_3~--N, thus resulting in the increase of their content in the effluent. It was also found out that the ammonium nitrogen was effectively removed...

In the paper, two different processes, granular activated carbon adsorption ("C"process) and Ozonation-activated carbon adsorption ("O_3 + C"process), were studied experimentally for removal of three forms of nitrogen from potable water on a comparative way. The results indicate that the ozonation is capable of oxidizing organic nitrogen into NH_3-N, and NO_2~--N into NO_3~--N, thus resulting in the increase of their content in the effluent. It was also found out that the ammonium nitrogen was effectively removed in the activated carbon beds by the mechanisms of microbiological assimilation and nitrification. However, in the"C"process, the nitrification process was dominated by the nitrite forming stage, and consequently the nitrite concentration of the effluent from the carbon bed is much higher than that of influent. Meanwhile, the carbon bed of the "C"process exhibited considerably high removal efficiency for nitrate. This is considered to be due to the mechanisms of biological denitrification and reduction of nitrate by a biodegradation product, alcoholic cthyl acid, into N_2 under the oxygen deficient condition in the carbon bed. In the "O_3 + C"process, the nitrification process was carried to the end with formation of nitrate under oxygen-sufficient conditions in the carbon bed. As a result, the nitrate concentration in the effluent increased markedly over the influent. The increased hydrogen ions, H~+ resulted from nitrification can be neutralized by the hydroxide ions, OH~+ dissociated from the carboxide groups on the activated carbon surface, thus preventing the effluent pH from dropping significantly.

本文对粒状活性炭吸附法和臭氧一活性炭吸附法两种处理流程(简称“C”流程和“O_3+C”流程)进行了从饮用水中去除三态氮的对比试验。结果表明,臭氧化能够将有机氮氧化成氨氮;亚硝酸盐氮氧化成硝酸盐氮,从而使它们在出水中的含量增加。试验还发现,在活性炭滤床中通过生物同化和硝化作用等机理有效地除去了氨氮。但是在“C”流程中硝化过程以亚硝化阶段为主,使出水中亚硝酸盐浓度远大于进水浓度。同时,“C”流程具有相当的硝酸盐去除率。

 
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