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  kinetochore
The use of immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting methods revealed the presence of the specific kinetochore component, CENP A protein.
      
This suggests tight association of some molecular kinetochore components with chromocenters in the interphase.
      
We propose that meiotic restitution is a result of special genetic regulation of the kinetochore organization (both structural and functional) and chromatin condensation, i.e.
      
This suggests that these mutants are defective in some specific, but still unknown aspect of kinetochore-MT interaction.
      
Assembly of correct kinetochore architecture in Xenopus egg extract requires transition of sperm DNA through interphase
      
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  centromere
The results were validated by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with centromere-specific DNA probes.
      
Computer-aided analysis of the amplified in TAIL-RCR DNA region adjacent to the left border of the insertion revealed a putative site of T-DNA insertion, the 2.5-kb At2g09920 gene located in the long arm of chromosome 2, near the centromere.
      
If the mating-type locus is linked to the centromere, the genome regions adjoining the centromeres of all chromosomes remain heterozygous.
      
Genetic regulation of the centromere division in rye and wheat univalent chromosomes in dimonosomics during the meiotic anaphase
      
The data obtained demonstrate that the rye and wheat chromosomes studied are involved in genetic regulation of centromere division in meiotic anaphase I (AI).
      
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  kinetochores
Owing to chiasmata, homologous chromosomes participate in meiosis I in pairs rather than individually, which, along with unipolarity of kinetochores (only in meiosis 1), ensures segregation of homologous chromosomes.
      
Mitotic chromosome segregation is partly achieved by interaction between microtubules (MTs)and the kinetochores of sister chromatids.
      
The precise mechanism of the interaction between kinetochores and MTs remains unclear.
      
These defects seem to be related to the disruption of functioning of mitotic spindle microtubules and (or) their defective attachment to the appropriate kinetochores.
      
On the contrary, kinetochores on chromosomes assembled according to the second protocol closely resemble those in somatic cells.
      
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  centromere index
A study is presented of the possibilities and limitations of semi-automated karyotype analysis on the basis of chromosome length and centromere index.
      
If there is a correlation between length and centromere index, which is often the case, the axes of the ellipse are tilted.
      
The main reason is that the variation in length and centromere index of a given chromosome in different cells is often much larger than the variation between nonhomologous chromosomes.
      
During metaphase these allocyclic Xs cannot be identified simply by metaphase position or morphology and show a wide range of measurements for arm ratio, centromere index and total length.
      
The centromere index and relative length of human high-resolution G-banded chromosomes
      
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It was demonstrated cytologically that in a natural population of the grasshopper,Catantops brachycerus, located at Sheh Hills in the vicinity of Shanghai, some individualswere found to carry an extra chromosome fragment in addition to the normal complementof 11 pairs of autosomes and an X chromosome in case of males. This extra fragment,being borne at the distal end of the large arm of the autosome No. 8 with no visibleloss on the part of the latter, is composed exclusively of heterochromatin, which showsnegative...

It was demonstrated cytologically that in a natural population of the grasshopper,Catantops brachycerus, located at Sheh Hills in the vicinity of Shanghai, some individualswere found to carry an extra chromosome fragment in addition to the normal complementof 11 pairs of autosomes and an X chromosome in case of males. This extra fragment,being borne at the distal end of the large arm of the autosome No. 8 with no visibleloss on the part of the latter, is composed exclusively of heterochromatin, which showsnegative heteropycnosis at M_1 similar in behavior to that of the X-chromosome. Thisfinding, together with other circumstantial evidence seems to indicate that this extra frag-ment probably found its origin from the X-chromosome. A close examination of the be-havior of the unequal bivalent during the spermatogenesis of the hemizygotes has revealedfurther two points of interest, one is the existance of a single chiasma between the cen-tromere region and the point of the attachment of the extra fragment in the diplotenestage and the other is the appearance of equational segregation of the unequal bivalentin the first anaphase (A_1). These two facts taken together bear strong evidence in sup-port of one plane theory of crossing-over and of one chiasma and one crossing-over rela-tionship theory as well. Of 530 male insects collected and examined from the population, 100 were foundto be hemizygous and 3 homozygous for the extra fragment. This amounts to a totalfrequency of 10% for this fragment in the population. Statistical analysis of the data forthe 3 different genotypes, homozygous normal, hemizygous and homozygous for the extrafragment shows that not only the total respective frequencies obtained for the 3 classesare in close conformity with the values expected on the basis of the Hardy-Weinbergformula, but also the variation in 3 successive generations and in different seasons doesnot significantly deviate from each other, giving a strong indication that the frequencyof the extra fragment has already reached a state of dynamic equilibrium in the popula-tion. As to the mechanism of how equilibrium of this chromosomal polymorphism ismaintained in the population, it remains to be an open question, though there is an in-dication of the favorable selection for the hemizygotes.

在上海附近的佘山,发现短角斑腿蝗自然群体中的一些个体的第8染色体是不等双价体。该染色体的额外片段比较大,由异染色质组成,并在减数分裂中期I和X染色体一样呈现负异固缩现象。在带有这个额外片段的半合体减数分裂时,发现第一次都是均等分离。这个现象与所观察到的下列事实一致,就是这对异形染色体的着丝点与额外片段之间经常只出现一个交叉点,再一次证明交换与交叉一对一关系和交换先于交叉理论的正确性。有关这个片段的来源,从—些旁证指出有可能来自X染色体。 所分析的530个个体中,100个是半合体,3个是带有这个片段的纯合体,因而得知额外片段在群体中的频率为10%。统计分析表明这三种遗传型,即正常纯合体、半合体和额外片段纯合体的频率符合Hardy-Weinberg公式,而且在连续三个世代之间以及不同季节之间这些频率没有显著的变化。有关额外片段在群体中的平衡机制,我们认为有可能是选择对半合体有利而使这种染色体维持稳定的多态平衡。

1.The pressent report consists of the karyotype analysis of cultured Amphibian somatic cells in vitro and the comparison of different cells from various tissues with regard to their karyotypes.2.The chromosomes of the cells from the tongue,kidney and lung tissues of the common toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) were studied.They were found to possess the diploid chromosome number of 22 (2n = 22),i.e.12 large and 10 small chromosomes.The large chromosomes were matched into 6 homologous pairs and the small chromosomes...

1.The pressent report consists of the karyotype analysis of cultured Amphibian somatic cells in vitro and the comparison of different cells from various tissues with regard to their karyotypes.2.The chromosomes of the cells from the tongue,kidney and lung tissues of the common toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) were studied.They were found to possess the diploid chromosome number of 22 (2n = 22),i.e.12 large and 10 small chromosomes.The large chromosomes were matched into 6 homologous pairs and the small chromosomes were matched into 5 homologous pairs.All of them were metacentric and submetacentric.According to the size,shape and position of the centromere,22 chromosomes were tentatively classified into 4 groups:Group 1-2,Group 3-6,Group 7-10 and Group 11.The chromosome pair 6 can be identified unequivocally by direct observation for the small satellites on the long arms.Sexual dimorphism of the chromosomes was not detected in somatic karyotype of male and female common toad.3.From the phenomenon of satellite association and the other behavior,it was concluded that the No.6 chromosome is the nueleolus organizer in the common toad cells.4.Similar studies were made on the karyotype of the cells from tongue and kidney of the frog (Rana plancyi).They were found to possess the diploid chromosome-number of 26 (2n = 26),i.e.10 large and 16 small chromosomes.The large chromosomes were matched into 5 homologus pairs and small chromosomes were matched into 8 homologus pairs.All of them were metacentric,submetaeentric and sub-telocentric.According to the size,shape and the position of the centromere,26 chromosomes were tentatively classified into 3 groups:Group 1,Group 2-5 and Group 6-13.The chromosome pair 9 can be identified unequivocally by direct observation for the secondary constriction on the long arms.Sexual dimorphism of the chromosomes was not detected in somatic karyotype of male and female frog.5.The karyotype of tongue cells and kidney cells were indistingishable from each other in quantitative characteristics,e.g.the relative length of each chromosome and the arm ratio (long arm/short arm).From the above investigation,it was concluded that the differentiation of the tissues cells was not reflected in the chromosomal morphology neither in the common toad nor in the frog.

本文报道离体培养的两栖类体细胞的染色体组型及不同组织细胞的染色体组型的比较分析结果。对于中华大蟾蜍(Bufo btfo gargarizans)离体培养舌细胞、肾细胞与肺细胞的染色体组型分析表明,其二倍体染色体数目为22个(2n=22),包括12个大型染色体,10个小型染色体。全部染色体可配成11对,均为中部和亚中部着丝点染色体。根据染色体的特征,可分为四组:即1—2组、3—6组、7—10组及11组。在第6染色体的长臂上发现随体。雌雄个体之间,并末发现与性别决定有关的异型染色体之存在。根据中华大蟾蜍第6染色体之间在随体和次缢痕部位的联合现象及其他有关现象,作者认为第6染色体是核仁组织者。对于金线蛙(Rana plancyi)离体培养舌细胞与肾细胞染色体组型的分析表明,其二倍体数目为26个(2n=26),包括10个大型染色体和16个小型染色体。全部染色体可配成13对,其着丝点为中部、亚中部和亚端部,根据染色体的特征,可分为三组:即1组、2—5组和6—13组。在第9染色体的长臂上发现次缢痕。雌雄个体之间,并未发现与性别决定有关的异型染色体之存在。离体培养的体细胞(舌细胞与肾细胞)染色体的相...

本文报道离体培养的两栖类体细胞的染色体组型及不同组织细胞的染色体组型的比较分析结果。对于中华大蟾蜍(Bufo btfo gargarizans)离体培养舌细胞、肾细胞与肺细胞的染色体组型分析表明,其二倍体染色体数目为22个(2n=22),包括12个大型染色体,10个小型染色体。全部染色体可配成11对,均为中部和亚中部着丝点染色体。根据染色体的特征,可分为四组:即1—2组、3—6组、7—10组及11组。在第6染色体的长臂上发现随体。雌雄个体之间,并末发现与性别决定有关的异型染色体之存在。根据中华大蟾蜍第6染色体之间在随体和次缢痕部位的联合现象及其他有关现象,作者认为第6染色体是核仁组织者。对于金线蛙(Rana plancyi)离体培养舌细胞与肾细胞染色体组型的分析表明,其二倍体数目为26个(2n=26),包括10个大型染色体和16个小型染色体。全部染色体可配成13对,其着丝点为中部、亚中部和亚端部,根据染色体的特征,可分为三组:即1组、2—5组和6—13组。在第9染色体的长臂上发现次缢痕。雌雄个体之间,并未发现与性别决定有关的异型染色体之存在。离体培养的体细胞(舌细胞与肾细胞)染色体的相对长度与臂比指数的测量统计值的比较分析表明,同一个体的不同组织的细胞之间,无论是中华大蟾蜍还是金线蛙,均无显著差异。因此,可以认为

In this study,the karyotype and Giemsa banding pattern of the chromosomes of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in R.r.roxellanae were investigated.The chromosome number of this species is 44 in both sexes.In R.r.raxellanae,as in other monkeys,sex is determined by specific sex chromosomes,i.e.the male is XY and the female is XX.The 21 pairs of autosomes consist of 7 pairs of metacentric chromosomes,13 pairs of submetacentric ones,1 pair of acrocentric ones.Chromosome measurements were made from highly enlarged...

In this study,the karyotype and Giemsa banding pattern of the chromosomes of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in R.r.roxellanae were investigated.The chromosome number of this species is 44 in both sexes.In R.r.raxellanae,as in other monkeys,sex is determined by specific sex chromosomes,i.e.the male is XY and the female is XX.The 21 pairs of autosomes consist of 7 pairs of metacentric chromosomes,13 pairs of submetacentric ones,1 pair of acrocentric ones.Chromosome measurements were made from highly enlarged photographic prints.Table II lists the results obtained including the relative length,arm ratio and centromere index of each chromosome.Both chromosomal and the chromatid aberrations were observed.They were 0.67% and 2%,respectively.Finally,Giemsa banding pattern analysis of chromosomes of R.r.roxellanae were carried out.The results show that each homologous pair has its own special banding pattern,so that each of them is easily recognizable.Idiograms of chromosome complements with the Giemsa banding pattern were constructed.

本研究通过外周血淋巴细胞培养的方法,对二只金丝猴的染色体组型和染色体带型进行了分析。现已确证,金丝猴的2倍体细胞的染色体数目为2n=44。雄性为XY,雌性为XX。在染色体组型分析中,测量和计算了每一染色体的相对长度,臂比和着丝点指数。染色体和染色单体的“自发”畸变率分别为0.67%和2%。从姬姆萨(Giemsa)氏带型分析表明,每一对同源染色体都有自己的特殊带型,因此所有的染色体都能予以识别,并能准确无误的配对。

 
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