The SLR derived secular change in the Moon's mean motion caused by the total tidal dissipation is -24.78 arc sec/century 2,agreeing very well with the result ((-24.9±1.0) arc sec/century 2) from the analysis of the lunar laser ranging data.

Finally, the gravity anomaly of the nearside is obtained, and is compared with the latest lunar gravitational model LP165. It showsthat the standard deviation in the domain -75° ~ 75° is ±27.354 mgal, and75° ~ 85°,-85° —75° is ±61.965 mgal, which verifies the feasibility and reliability of this method.

The SLR derived secular change in the Moon's mean motion caused by the total tidal dissipation is -24.78 arc sec/century 2,agreeing very well with the result ((-24.9±1.0) arc sec/century 2) from the analysis of the lunar laser ranging data.

This ejection lasts 0 05～0 15 Ma and the mass of ejected material is 1 2～2 5 M 0 ( M 0 is the present mass of the moon) which condenses quickly and generates debris disk gradually. Near the Roche limit the moon is produced from debris disk.

Finally,considering the point that our national "Chang'e 1" will be launched with a laser altimetry on it,the idea and its flow chart to determinate lunar gravity field model with the stronger correlation as a restriction between lunar topography and gravity field is proposed.

The role of benthopelagic and holoplanktonic organisms in relation to the time of the day, season, and phase of the moon was determined.

Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets.

Observation of the Moon Shadow in Cosmic Ray Muons

The effect of cosmic ray shadowing by the Moon is observed by recording the single muon component with the Baksan underground scintillation telescope (BUST).

A statistically significant (three standard deviations) deficit of muon intensity in the Moon's direction is discovered.

Detection of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos by radio method using artificial lunar satellites

An estimate of the feasibility of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray and neutrino detection using a lunar satellite-borne radio receiver is presented.

At the same time the lunar radio detector provides a means of searching for ultrahigh-energy neutrinos with a high sensitivity combined with a very large target effective mass.

Optimizing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Extraterrestrial Materials: Fragments of Lunar Rocks, Meteorites, Chondru

It was shown that, along with geothermal brines (oceanic water), the most promising natural materials to be tested for SHEs are some volcanic (fumarole, griffon) products, lunar rocks, and asteroids.

The role of benthopelagic and holoplanktonic organisms in relation to the time of the day, season, and phase of the moon was determined.

Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets.

Observation of the Moon Shadow in Cosmic Ray Muons

The effect of cosmic ray shadowing by the Moon is observed by recording the single muon component with the Baksan underground scintillation telescope (BUST).

A statistically significant (three standard deviations) deficit of muon intensity in the Moon's direction is discovered.

This paper continues previous work and completes the design of the rocket's orbits which can hit the moon. In this paper, the relations between the initial conditions and the positions on the moon's sphere of influence are imperoved, based on the double two-body problem. Further, the effects of other disturbing factors (solar and planetary gravitation, drag of atmosphere etc,) on successfully hitting the moon, except lunar gravitation and first order terms of the terrestrial field of gravitation are discussed....

This paper continues previous work and completes the design of the rocket's orbits which can hit the moon. In this paper, the relations between the initial conditions and the positions on the moon's sphere of influence are imperoved, based on the double two-body problem. Further, the effects of other disturbing factors (solar and planetary gravitation, drag of atmosphere etc,) on successfully hitting the moon, except lunar gravitation and first order terms of the terrestrial field of gravitation are discussed. The results show that these factors can be neglected. In the last part, the deflections which are produced by the errors of initial values are studied, from which,the allowable maximum errors of the initial values are calculated.

This paper discusses the problem of distribution of points on the moon's surface intersected by the orbits of several kinds of lunar rocket, based on the planar and space double two-body problem. First we obtained the ingress-region on the moon's sphere of influence in which the orbits with different initial veloceties can hit the moon vertically, slantingly and tangentially. Then we get the distribution of hitting points on moon's surfaceof these orbits; hence we determine the forbbiden regions on the moon's...

This paper discusses the problem of distribution of points on the moon's surface intersected by the orbits of several kinds of lunar rocket, based on the planar and space double two-body problem. First we obtained the ingress-region on the moon's sphere of influence in which the orbits with different initial veloceties can hit the moon vertically, slantingly and tangentially. Then we get the distribution of hitting points on moon's surfaceof these orbits; hence we determine the forbbiden regions on the moon's surface of hitting orbits with different initial velocities. The result of calculation shows that: the magnitude of forbbiden region mainly depends upon the magnitude of initial velocity, when the initial velocity increases, then the magnitude of forbbided region increases monotonically; in the case of ascending orbits, the position of forbbiden region is at the posterior part (opposite to the direction of lunar motion) of the invisible half of the moon's surface; in the case of descending orbits, the position of forbbiden region is at the posterior part of the visible half of the moon's surface. Consequently, the anterior part of the invisible half of the moon can be hitten by ascending orbit; and every point on the moon's surface can be hitten by an ascending or descending orbit with specified initial velocity.

The purpose of this investigation is to study the possibility and condition for a lunar probe to hit or to fly over, at close range, any given region on the surface of the moon. We limit the ballistic speed of the vehicle to 11.2 km/sec and require that the height at the last burn out point should be about a few hundred kilometres. Six definite regions on the surface of the moon are considered as the objectives of these flights. Four regions lie on the great circle where the orbital plane of the moon cuts the...

The purpose of this investigation is to study the possibility and condition for a lunar probe to hit or to fly over, at close range, any given region on the surface of the moon. We limit the ballistic speed of the vehicle to 11.2 km/sec and require that the height at the last burn out point should be about a few hundred kilometres. Six definite regions on the surface of the moon are considered as the objectives of these flights. Four regions lie on the great circle where the orbital plane of the moon cuts the lunar surface. They are designated as the "near", "remote", "east", and "west" points. For these points, only trajectories in the orbital plane of the moon have been considered. The other two regions, namely, the poles of the aforesaid great circle, are called the "north" and "south" points respectively. In the preliminary survey of the possible trajectories, the approximate method of assuming the earth-moon space as divided into two by a sphere of action of radius 66000 km around the moon has been employed. The trajectory may then be considered to consist of several sections, each one of which is determined by the laws of two-body problem. From considerations on the permissible angular momentum of the orbit, it has been possible to derive limiting values for the velocity of hitting and the angle of incidence in the case of impact trajectories. For reconnaissance trajectories, we try to find out the allowable perilunar distance and velocity as well as how close may the perilunar point of the trajectory be brought to the surface of the moon. From preliminary investigation by the approximate method of sphere of action, we have come to the following conclusions: A. For impact trajectories: 1) To hit either the near or the remote point, the vehicle must be approaching the moon from the east side. With velocity of impact somewhere in the range 160—180km/min, the probe may hit these points at an angle of incidence of 30° or greater. 2) Vertical impact is possible only at the east point with the velocity of hitting at slightly less than 160 km/min. 3) The west point may be hit by a lunar probe, but only at grazing incidence. 4) The trajectories for hitting the north and the south points could be mirror images of each other. These points may be hit at an angle of incidence of about 60°, at a speed of less than 160 km/min. B. For reconnaissance trajectories: 1) Over the near and the remote points, there is a whole series of symmetrical orbits in which the vehicle would be sure to return to the neighbourhood of the earth. When the perilunar velocity is about 100 km/min, the distance of close approach to the centre of the moon may be no more than 5000 km. We can make the trajectory come in contact with the surface of the moon, if we allow the perilunar velocity to be increased to 160 km/min. 2) With perilunar distance over 30000 km, it is possible for the vehicle to fly horizontally over the east point of the moon. Such reconnaissance flight is possible over the west point, but the vehicle has to be so low that the orbit becomes identical with the impact trajectory grazing the west point. 3) When the perilunar point of the orbit may be permitted to deviate about 45° from the zenith of the east or the west point, we can still have reconnaissance trajectories that will bring the vehicle back to the neighbourhood of the earth. 4) When we consider only trajectories whose motion inside the sphere of action is in a plane perpendicular to the earth-moon direction, we could have symmetrical orbits with horizontal flight over the north or the south point at a distance of about 24000 km from the centre of the moon. With permissible values at the moon for different definite points, the path of the vehicle is traced backward in time to verify if it did pass by the vicinity of the earth with reasonable speed. If so, the position and velocity of the vehicle near the earth are taken as the initial values at the last burn out point, and the impact or reconnaissance trajectory is computed once again. In such computations the attractions of both the moon and the earth are taken into account by the method of numerical integration. The trajectories thus obtained are listed in Tables 5, 6, and 7.