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    Comparison Between the Category of the Chinese Traditional "Tao" and That of the Western "Science
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    The Category of Dietetic Beauty and Its Natural Character and Artificial Decoration
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    The Heterodoxy of Aesthetics: Research on the Category of "Kuang" in Chinese Classical Literary Theory
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We study the tensor category of tilting modules over a quantum groupUq with divided powers.
      
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The analysis of rigid frames with so called "span-change" beams such as curved, gabled, folded or trussed ones is rather difficult. The method of redundant forces or method of slope deflection are too tedious to be used in practical work. In this paper a new method namely the method of propagating unbalanced moments and lateral forces is proposed for analyzing such frames.The principle of this method is some what like that of the one cycle method of moment distribution for analyzing rigid frames with straight...

The analysis of rigid frames with so called "span-change" beams such as curved, gabled, folded or trussed ones is rather difficult. The method of redundant forces or method of slope deflection are too tedious to be used in practical work. In this paper a new method namely the method of propagating unbalanced moments and lateral forces is proposed for analyzing such frames.The principle of this method is some what like that of the one cycle method of moment distribution for analyzing rigid frames with straight beams and its procedure may be briefly described as follows: the unbalanced moments and lateral forces at all joints of the frame are calculated first and propagated successively to all the other joints by means of a set of the so-called constants of deformation-propagation, which are to be computed from the properties of the frame only. Then its original and various propagated unbalanced moments and lateral forces at each joint are summed up and distributed among all the bar-ends at that joint according to special formulas to obtain the distributed moment and lateral force at each bar-end. Finally, the balanced moment and lateral force at each bar-end are obtained simply by summing up the following three components respectively: (1) those at each bar-end assumed fixed, M~F and H~F; (2) those propagated to each bar-end, M~P and H~P; and (3) those distributed to each bar-end, M~D and H~D. That is:M=M~F+M~P+M~D, H=H~F+H~P+H~D.Evidently, the procedure of this method is very simple and direct, and the work of calculations is greatly reduced, especially when any span-change rigid frame is to be analyzed for many loading conditions.Two typical examples are given in this paper to illustrate the application of the method and the author hopes deeply that this method will be found usefull by the structural engineers in designing such rigid frames.

凡具有曲梁、山牆式梁、摺式梁、门式梁、桁架梁或其他“跨变”横梁之剛構均可称为“跨变剛構”。跨变剛構常为高次的超靜定結構,其应力分析至为复杂。採用冗力法、最少功法或角变位移法以分析此类刚構,常嫌过繁,当结構受有多种荷載情形时,更需作多次計算,尤覺繁不堪言,頗不为实际工作者所乐用。著者於本文發表一不均衡力矩及侧力傳播法以分析此类剛構。無論剛構本身以及單个的跨变横梁是否对称,也不論組成剛構的各个桿件为等截面或为变截面,本法均可适用,因此本法之实用范圍可称广泛。 本法之基本观念可簡單描述如次:首先將作用於各結点的不均衡力矩及側力,傳播至所有其他結点之桿端,求得每一結点的不均衡力矩及侧力的总值,然后經过一次分配則可得出該結点桿端之分配力矩及分配侧力。計算所需之最終桿端力矩及侧力即为a)定端力矩或側力,b)傳播力矩或侧力,以及c)分配力矩或側力三者之和。 本法之性质属于一次分配法之范疇,共精神与我国結構学者蔡方蔭先生所得分析直桿剛構之“不均衡力矩傳播法”甚为相似,如果跨变横梁变为直桿,則本法所得計算公式即簡化而成蔡氏所得之公式。 文中举二算例,以明本法之应用。 著者認为採用此法以分析跨变剛构,不仅計算可趋精簡,且当結構承...

凡具有曲梁、山牆式梁、摺式梁、门式梁、桁架梁或其他“跨变”横梁之剛構均可称为“跨变剛構”。跨变剛構常为高次的超靜定結構,其应力分析至为复杂。採用冗力法、最少功法或角变位移法以分析此类刚構,常嫌过繁,当结構受有多种荷載情形时,更需作多次計算,尤覺繁不堪言,頗不为实际工作者所乐用。著者於本文發表一不均衡力矩及侧力傳播法以分析此类剛構。無論剛構本身以及單个的跨变横梁是否对称,也不論組成剛構的各个桿件为等截面或为变截面,本法均可适用,因此本法之实用范圍可称广泛。 本法之基本观念可簡單描述如次:首先將作用於各結点的不均衡力矩及側力,傳播至所有其他結点之桿端,求得每一結点的不均衡力矩及侧力的总值,然后經过一次分配則可得出該結点桿端之分配力矩及分配侧力。計算所需之最終桿端力矩及侧力即为a)定端力矩或側力,b)傳播力矩或侧力,以及c)分配力矩或側力三者之和。 本法之性质属于一次分配法之范疇,共精神与我国結構学者蔡方蔭先生所得分析直桿剛構之“不均衡力矩傳播法”甚为相似,如果跨变横梁变为直桿,則本法所得計算公式即簡化而成蔡氏所得之公式。 文中举二算例,以明本法之应用。 著者認为採用此法以分析跨变剛构,不仅計算可趋精簡,且当結構承受多种荷載情形时,尤其具有显明?

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地下结构物之衬砌与其周围之岩层紧密接触,系处于弹性介质内的弹性结构物,其自身的变形情况与地层压力的大小、性质及周围岩层的特性息息相关。当岩层坚硬系数f>2时,各种单层单跨或多跨地下结构物之型式,常采用上部拱(抛物线或圆形拱)及下部直墙式之衬砌。此种结构之分析法实隶诸跨变刚构之范畴。本文采用文克尔(Winkler)假定、将衬砌之边墙视为一弹性地基上之直梁并考虑墙基截面之实际约束情形,导出其顶端各个弹性常数之计算公式。此外并讨论衬砌直墙在各种情形下,例如弹性墙、刚性墙、柔性墙(按其计算同弹性地基上之无限长梁)、阶形墙时结构之计算方法。于不对称式(包括荷载或结构型式)或多跨之地下衬砌,本文则引用文克尔假定提供各墙基不等下陷之推求法及其对衬砌各部应力之影响。最后并简单讨论多层地下结构物直墙衬砌之分析问题。

The so-called "landscape horizon" in this paper is viewed from the fact that the landscape acts as an objective and independent substance of matters on the surface of the earth Along a given line in any unit of regions the landscape may be sectioned crossly Landscape is a component part on the land of the landscape sphere, which envelopes the earth, so that its basic components are also .solid, gas, liquid, and organic matters. The science of the landscape may be therefore considered as regional geography. All...

The so-called "landscape horizon" in this paper is viewed from the fact that the landscape acts as an objective and independent substance of matters on the surface of the earth Along a given line in any unit of regions the landscape may be sectioned crossly Landscape is a component part on the land of the landscape sphere, which envelopes the earth, so that its basic components are also .solid, gas, liquid, and organic matters. The science of the landscape may be therefore considered as regional geography. All the evidences concerning the completion of major types of the landscape, the floral and faunal extinction and new species—production, and especially the apperance of man prove thai the history of the landscape can only date back to the begining of the Quaternary Era, so that palaeogeography may be restricted in this scope. According to time, the landscape includes naturally the weathering crust as its bass, and its upper end should be coincided with the top of air near the ground, or of the highest trees. Thus its thickness is all the same in standard to any reginal unit Obviously, the extent of the landscape do not exceed the continental slopes in the sea. Judging from the statements mentioned above, a horizon of four dimensions has to logically occur in any unit of regions. It is the "landscape horizon", in which vertical and horizontal differentiations have continuously proceeded. Controlled by some geographic processes, the "landscape horizon" has been vertically differentiated into three sub—horizons: the sub—horizon of weathering crust, of soils, and of biotic community and air, They altogether revealed the morphological structure in types of the landscape. The horizontal differentiations conditioned by some other gcogra phic processes indicate the relationships of the landscape in areal continuity. The diagrams of the "landscape horizon" must be based on field works. Here are two examples, one, for the "landscape horizon" of steppe, and the other, of desert (figures 1 and 2). These diagrams can be used to (1) point out the structural and ecological features, in other words, the typological characteristics of the landscape, (2) determine the boundaries of regions and provide a basis for the plan of agriculture, and (3) help to study some theoritical problems of regional divisions. The author believes that the concept of the "landscape horizon" may be nseful in practical as well as in theoritical works.

本文所谓“景观层”是出之于景观是地球表面上起作用的一种客观的独立的物质实体的看法。在区域任一单元的一定线上景观能用剖面体现出来。景观是环围地球的景观壳在陆地上的一个组成部分,因之它的基本组成要素也是固体,气体、液体、和有机质。以此之故景观学可以认为是区域地理学。所有景观主要类型之完成,动植物之死亡和新种之产生,和特別是人类之出现的证据都证明景观历史仅能回溯至第四纪之始。古地理学因此应当限于这个范畴之內。根据时间,景观的下限自然包有风化壳,而其上限则与近地面空气层或最高乔木顶部相一致。显然,它的广度不超过大陆斜坡。由上可知一种具有四度空间的层必见于任何区域单元之內。这就是“景观层”。其中垂直和水平分异作用不断进行着。为一些地理过程所规定,“景观层”在垂直方向上被分异为风化壳,土壤、和生物与空气三个亚层。它们共同揭示了景观类型的形态构造。而受制于另一些地理过程的水平分异则表明景观在空间连续性上的相互关系。“景观层”图解根据野外工作制出。这里举出二例:一为草原“景观层”图解,另一则属于荒漠(图1和2)。这种图解可用以(1)指出景观的构造和生态特征,换言之,郎其类型特点;(2)确定区域的界限并为农业规划提...

本文所谓“景观层”是出之于景观是地球表面上起作用的一种客观的独立的物质实体的看法。在区域任一单元的一定线上景观能用剖面体现出来。景观是环围地球的景观壳在陆地上的一个组成部分,因之它的基本组成要素也是固体,气体、液体、和有机质。以此之故景观学可以认为是区域地理学。所有景观主要类型之完成,动植物之死亡和新种之产生,和特別是人类之出现的证据都证明景观历史仅能回溯至第四纪之始。古地理学因此应当限于这个范畴之內。根据时间,景观的下限自然包有风化壳,而其上限则与近地面空气层或最高乔木顶部相一致。显然,它的广度不超过大陆斜坡。由上可知一种具有四度空间的层必见于任何区域单元之內。这就是“景观层”。其中垂直和水平分异作用不断进行着。为一些地理过程所规定,“景观层”在垂直方向上被分异为风化壳,土壤、和生物与空气三个亚层。它们共同揭示了景观类型的形态构造。而受制于另一些地理过程的水平分异则表明景观在空间连续性上的相互关系。“景观层”图解根据野外工作制出。这里举出二例:一为草原“景观层”图解,另一则属于荒漠(图1和2)。这种图解可用以(1)指出景观的构造和生态特征,换言之,郎其类型特点;(2)确定区域的界限并为农业规划提供基础,和(3)有助于探讨区划的某些理论问題。因之,“景观层”概念在实践和理论工作上是有用的。

 
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