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法国的    
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  french
    The French SYRINX Program
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    The spreading of Chinese culture once gave great influence to the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.
    以儒家文化为主流的中国文化在法国的广泛传播,曾对法国的启蒙运动和资产阶级大革命产生过重要影响。
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    Management and Disposal of Rubbish in French
    法国的垃圾管理和处置
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    Self-Reflection on the Present Problems in Higher TCM Education Comparing with French Medical Education
    从法国的医学教育反观我国高等中医教育目前存在的问题
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    On the French Budgetary Policy:from Expansionism to Good Health
    评法国的财政政策导向:从扩张走向健康化
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Specific Features of the Photosynthetic System in the French Bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) in the Southern Moscow District
      
The main patterns of the functioning of the photosynthetic system of the French bean were established on the basis of comparative tests of eight cultivars and varieties.
      
Two sets of the French equipment "Microaccelerometer" were used for these measurements.
      
The results of processing and interpreting the data of joint Russian-French experiments for studying the heat and mass transfer in near-critical fluids are presented.
      
The investigation was based on the processing of data of the angular velocity measurements made by the German system QSAM, as well as the data of measurements of microaccelerations performed by the QSAM system and by the French accelerometer BETA.
      
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本文着重分析了荆江河曲形成的边界条件,指出沙层之上复有厚层粘土的二元结构,或沙与土互层结构的土质条件,对荆江河曲的形成与发展起了极其重要的作用。同时,从对荆江在2500年内河床类型的演变过程的分析中,阐明了历史时期内分流穴口的淤塞,使荆江流量增大,洪水位增高,促进了河漫滩相粘土层的迅速增厚,造成了在水流作用下,河岸的相对可动性小於河底的边界条件,因而促使荆江的河型由三角洲分(氵义)河床转化为河曲。最后根据400多年来荆江各段河床平面变形形式的不同将荆江河曲划分出五种弯道演变的类型。自然界中蜿蜒曲折的河床称为河曲,它是普遍存在的一种河床类型。远在2000多年前,我国著名学者管子就提出“水性至曲”的现象。1870年英国著名地质学家C.莱伊尔(C.Lyells)开始从地质地貌观点研究河曲成因与演变。1908年法国河道工程师L.法格(L.Fargue)阐明弯道形态特性。随后学者们从地貌、地质、水文、泥沙与河流动力等方面对河曲进行了广泛的研究,提出了数十种假说,但河曲成因至今还被认为是理论上悬而未决的问题。而本文探讨的荆江河曲又有其复杂的形成条件,但我们认为只要遵循毛主席的教导:“马克思主义的最本质的东西,马克思主义的...

本文着重分析了荆江河曲形成的边界条件,指出沙层之上复有厚层粘土的二元结构,或沙与土互层结构的土质条件,对荆江河曲的形成与发展起了极其重要的作用。同时,从对荆江在2500年内河床类型的演变过程的分析中,阐明了历史时期内分流穴口的淤塞,使荆江流量增大,洪水位增高,促进了河漫滩相粘土层的迅速增厚,造成了在水流作用下,河岸的相对可动性小於河底的边界条件,因而促使荆江的河型由三角洲分(氵义)河床转化为河曲。最后根据400多年来荆江各段河床平面变形形式的不同将荆江河曲划分出五种弯道演变的类型。自然界中蜿蜒曲折的河床称为河曲,它是普遍存在的一种河床类型。远在2000多年前,我国著名学者管子就提出“水性至曲”的现象。1870年英国著名地质学家C.莱伊尔(C.Lyells)开始从地质地貌观点研究河曲成因与演变。1908年法国河道工程师L.法格(L.Fargue)阐明弯道形态特性。随后学者们从地貌、地质、水文、泥沙与河流动力等方面对河曲进行了广泛的研究,提出了数十种假说,但河曲成因至今还被认为是理论上悬而未决的问题。而本文探讨的荆江河曲又有其复杂的形成条件,但我们认为只要遵循毛主席的教导:“马克思主义的最本质的东西,马克思主义的活的灵魄,就在於具体地分析具体的情况”。按这一指示来研究它,总能逐渐取得一定成果的。笔者具体地分析了荆江河床形成的条件。研究了荆江历史时期水系演变的情况,在这样的基础上来探讨荆江河曲的成因与演变。

Mount Shisha Pangma,one of the high peaks of the central Himalayas,is about 8,012 m in height above the sea level.At the foot of its northern slope,there is a series of grayish yellow sandstones.Its exposed thickness is about 1,000 m. In the lower part of this sandstone series,a plant-bearing bed was discovered,in which were preserved leaves of evergreen oaks,Quercus semicarpifolia Sm.,Qu.cf. pannosa Hand.-Mzt.and Qu.cf.senecens Hand.-Mzt.,and a leaf of Cyperaceae . Under palynological investigation,a large...

Mount Shisha Pangma,one of the high peaks of the central Himalayas,is about 8,012 m in height above the sea level.At the foot of its northern slope,there is a series of grayish yellow sandstones.Its exposed thickness is about 1,000 m. In the lower part of this sandstone series,a plant-bearing bed was discovered,in which were preserved leaves of evergreen oaks,Quercus semicarpifolia Sm.,Qu.cf. pannosa Hand.-Mzt.and Qu.cf.senecens Hand.-Mzt.,and a leaf of Cyperaceae . Under palynological investigation,a large amount of pollen grains of Cedrus(mostly of C.deodara Loud.)and Quercus has been observed,counted about 59.1% and 72.2% of the sporo-pollen contents of the upper and lower parts respectively.Besides,pollen of Abies,Picea,Pinus,Tsuga,Betula,Ericaceae,Labiatae and Cyperaceae and spores of Pteris,Polypodium and Selaginella were also observed.The sporo-pollen assemblages of the upper and lower parts of this series are quite similar.Owing to the increment of the amount of Abies pollen and the appearance of pollen grains of Picea,Pinus and some shrubby and herbaceous plants and spore of Selaginella,the flora of the later stage is more complex than that of the earlier,and the floral development of the later stage is more close to that in temperate climate rather than in subtropical.Anyway, the vegetation of that time is,as a whole,mainly represented by evergreen oak and Cedrus forests.The climate then seems to be rather mild and rainy. The flora is more close to the late Pliocene flora of Northwestern Yunnan,the middle-late Pliocene flora of south-eastern Europe and the early Pleistocene flora of Kashmir.The floral development of the said flora is quite identical with that of the Pliocene flora of Ebene(Sofia)of Bulgaria and that of the middle Pliocene flora of Cantal,southern France.The geological age of the present sandstone series is not earlier than the middle-late Pliocene. The climate of the fossil locality at present is very severe.The altitude is 5,700— 5,900 m,above the sea level.Plants can no longer live even in mid-summer.Both the macro-and micro-plant fossils indicate that the climate then was rather warm and the altitude was only 2,500 m above the sea level.Evidently,Mt.Shisha Pangma has up- lifted about 3,000 m.since late Pliocene.

希夏邦马峰是喜马拉雅山中部的高峰之一,海拔8012米。在其北坡山脚下有一套灰黄色砂岩层,露出的厚度约为1000米。在砂岩层的下部出现一个植物化石层,保存着高山栎(Quercus semicarpifolia Sm.)、类似黄背栎(Qu.cf.pannosa Hand.-Mzt.)、灰背栎(Qu .senescens Hand.-Mzt.)、常绿乔木和莎草科的叶化石。经孢粉分析,发现砂砾岩的上、下部岩石中都含有大量的雪松属和栎属花粉,各占本部孢粉含量的59.1%及72.2%。此外,有冷杉、云杉、松、铁杉和桦等属乔木花粉和杜鹃科、唇形科、莎草科灌木和草本植物花粉及凤尾蕨、水龙骨、卷柏等属孢子。上、下部的孢粉组合大体相似,但上部成分较为复杂,冷杉属的分量有所增加,并出现云杉属和松属的花粉。灌木和草本植物花粉也多出现于上部。说明晚期植被趋向温带类型,气候趋向微凉方向发展。总的说来,当时植被以常绿栎林和雪松林为主,气候温和而多雨,酷似今日的亚热带。从植物区系上看,希夏邦马植物区系与云南西北部上新世、南欧东部上新世中晚期以及克什米尔早更新世的植物区系有较密切的关系,其发展趋势与保加利亚南部索非亚的艾奔(Ebene)上新世...

希夏邦马峰是喜马拉雅山中部的高峰之一,海拔8012米。在其北坡山脚下有一套灰黄色砂岩层,露出的厚度约为1000米。在砂岩层的下部出现一个植物化石层,保存着高山栎(Quercus semicarpifolia Sm.)、类似黄背栎(Qu.cf.pannosa Hand.-Mzt.)、灰背栎(Qu .senescens Hand.-Mzt.)、常绿乔木和莎草科的叶化石。经孢粉分析,发现砂砾岩的上、下部岩石中都含有大量的雪松属和栎属花粉,各占本部孢粉含量的59.1%及72.2%。此外,有冷杉、云杉、松、铁杉和桦等属乔木花粉和杜鹃科、唇形科、莎草科灌木和草本植物花粉及凤尾蕨、水龙骨、卷柏等属孢子。上、下部的孢粉组合大体相似,但上部成分较为复杂,冷杉属的分量有所增加,并出现云杉属和松属的花粉。灌木和草本植物花粉也多出现于上部。说明晚期植被趋向温带类型,气候趋向微凉方向发展。总的说来,当时植被以常绿栎林和雪松林为主,气候温和而多雨,酷似今日的亚热带。从植物区系上看,希夏邦马植物区系与云南西北部上新世、南欧东部上新世中晚期以及克什米尔早更新世的植物区系有较密切的关系,其发展趋势与保加利亚南部索非亚的艾奔(Ebene)上新世和法国南部康塔耳(Cantal)上新世中期的植物区系相仿。因此,含高山栎岩系的地质时代不会早于上新世中晚期。现在化石产地气候十分严寒,海拔5700—5900米。盛夏之际,草木不生,而大小植物化石皆指出在上新世中、晚期该地比较温暖,海拔不过2500米。显然希夏邦马峰在上新世以后二三百万年间,已升高了约3000米。

The evaluation of the gust-loading factor is very important to the design of structures subjected to lateral pressure from fluctuating wind. In the determination of the peak factor of fluctuating wind pressure, references or codes of U. S. S. R, Canada and France usually take approximations conerning the distributions of fluctuating wind pressure and of mass along the height of the structure. Another assumption made is that the wind pressure along the horizontal length of the structure is constant. Thus only...

The evaluation of the gust-loading factor is very important to the design of structures subjected to lateral pressure from fluctuating wind. In the determination of the peak factor of fluctuating wind pressure, references or codes of U. S. S. R, Canada and France usually take approximations conerning the distributions of fluctuating wind pressure and of mass along the height of the structure. Another assumption made is that the wind pressure along the horizontal length of the structure is constant. Thus only approximate values can be obtained. This paper takes into account of the change of the gust pressure both along the height and the length of the structure, makes use of the theory of random vibration for resolution into natural modes of free vibration of systems with infinite or finite degrees of freedom, and derives a formula for the determination of the gust-loading factor. Furthermore, on the basis of experimental data from some typical districts in China and in some other countries, numerical values of gust factors have been calculated. Simplified formula's and equivalent formulas for gust factors of structures having uniform stiffness and mass along the height have also been given. The author has also prepared tables for design purposes and for reference in case of revision of the code on design loading.

在脉动风压下结构的风振系数是结构物特别是高耸结构物在抗风计算中的重要问题。苏联、加拿大、法国等国文献或规范[1][2][4][8]等在确定脉动风压的动力系数时,未能完整考虑沿结构高度脉动风压和结构质量分布的影响,并且常作了沿水平长度风压是不变的假定,求出了风振系数,因此有了一定的偏差存在。本文按无限或有限自由度体系,根据随机振动理论,按振型分解的方法,考虑风压沿高度和长度的变化规律,求出了风振系数。根据国内外风压实测资料,求出了风振系数中有关数据。对于沿着高度其刚度和质量都比较均匀的建筑物,提出了简化公式和折算公式。有关数据已制表格,可供应用和荷载规范修订时参考。

 
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