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  hakka
Of the 31 variants found in this province, Gd Kaiping, Gd Taiwan-Hakka, Gd Haad Yai, Gd Haad Yai-like and Gd Huiyang occurred most frequently.
      
On the other hand, two ethnic groups, Fo-lo and Hakka, in Taiwan had both of the Y1 and the Y2 alleles.
      
Three of the eight Y2-positive men, 2 Fo-lo and a Hakka, shared family name Chen.
      
Both Hakka people and ancesters of Chen families could be traced to the Province of Henan in northern China in early 4th century.
      
The results show that Taiwan's Han Chinese differ drastically in genotypic information compared with Caucasians but are relatively homogeneous among the three major ethnic subgroups, Minnan, Hakka and Mainlanders.
      
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Hai-Lu Hakka" refers to the Hakka dialect spoken originall by Hakkas at Haifeng and Lufeng and Luke Counties in East Guangdong Province.In this article are described both the general resemblance of and the local differences between the "Hai-Lu Hakka" spoken by the natives and the "Hai-Lu Hakka" spoken by migrants to Taiwan, with analytic discussions about the position and the pragmatics of the two.

“海陆客”是指粤东海陆丰地区即今海丰、陆丰和陆河三县客家人所讲的客家方言,由于明清以后,海陆丰客家人多次渡台谋生,因而在台湾也形成了一个海陆客语言社团。本文除重点描写了海陆客的共性特点和内部差异外,还对海峡两岸海陆客的地位和语用状况作了探讨和分析。

Putonghua spoken by the people in the Hakko area is relatively monotonous, which has strong local color and written color without retroflex tone, neutral tone or rcoloring. In fact, it is a sub-standard Chinese language, which follows the standard Chinese language because it grows from the imitation of the standard Chinese language. This paper makes an initial analysis and introduction of the cause of formation and basic characteristics of the substandard Chinese language in the Hakko area.

客家人所说的那种没有翘舌音 ,没有轻声、儿化的 ,带有浓厚地方色彩和书面语化的普通话 ,实际上就是一种汉语次标准语。它是伴随汉语标准语而来的 ,因为模仿汉语标准语才会产生这种次标准语。分析客家地区汉语次标准语的形成原因、基本特点有助于我们对其比较全面、系统的了解。

For the Hakkas,there exist a "referent group" in the appellation "father",and these referents have some relations with the Hakkas' tradition of naming for the respected people.From the language coding way of these referents,some deep level of the Hakkas as well as the paternal power or masculine right of the Hakkas can be traced.The introduction of the referent "father" was the invasion and subversion of the traditional Hakkas appellation culture by the modern civilization,which destroyed the authority of the...

For the Hakkas,there exist a "referent group" in the appellation "father",and these referents have some relations with the Hakkas' tradition of naming for the respected people.From the language coding way of these referents,some deep level of the Hakkas as well as the paternal power or masculine right of the Hakkas can be traced.The introduction of the referent "father" was the invasion and subversion of the traditional Hakkas appellation culture by the modern civilization,which destroyed the authority of the paternal power or masculine right.At the same time the introduction symbolized the establishment of the new human relations in the Hakka regions.

客家人的“父亲”称谓有一个“指称族,”这些指称与客家人的名讳传统有关,从指称的语言编码方式看,还可以窥探到客家文化的某些底层,以及客家的父权或男权思想的孑遗。而“爸爸”指称的引入,则是现代文明对客家传统称谓文化的入侵和颠覆,它消解了父权或男权的威严,同时标志着新型人伦思想有待在客家地区得到全新确立。

 
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