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  seed
     Study on Process and Models for Extraction of Edible and Medicinal Ingredients with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide from Grape Seed
     超临界二氧化碳萃取葡萄中食用及药用成分的工艺和模型研究
短句来源
     Effect of ~(125)Ⅰ Seed Interstitial Implant on Tumor Inhibition and Development of a Treatment Planning System for Tumor Therapy
     ~(125)Ⅰ源组织间植入的抑瘤效果和治疗计划系统研究
短句来源
     Study on α-linolenic Acid Enrichment & Microencapsulation Technology of Kiwifruits Seed Oil
     猕猴桃油α-亚麻酸的富集及猕猴桃油微胶囊化技术研究
短句来源
     Studies on Separation & Purification, Identification of the Proanthocyanidins in Grape Seed Extract, and Their Antioxidation
     葡萄原花青素分离提纯、组分鉴定及抗氧化性研究
短句来源
     Study on the Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Grape Seed Procyanidins on Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice
     葡萄原花青素对小鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用及机制研究
短句来源
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  seeds
     Nanometer NH4Al(OH)2CO3 precursor was synthesized from NH4Al(SO4)2 and NH4HCO3. The effect of α-Al2O3 seeds (-150nm) on the phase transformation and micrograph of alumina was studied.
     在湿化学法合成的纳米Al2O3前驱体NH4Al(OH)2CO3中添加α-Al2O3晶(150nm左右),研究了α-Al2O3晶对Al2O3晶型转变及形貌的影响.
短句来源
     Effects of α-Al_2O_3 Seeds on the Phase Transformation and Microstructure of Alumina
     α-Al_2O_3晶对Al_2O_3晶型转变及形貌的影响
短句来源
     The result showed that 100 g tomato seeds contained 23.12 g oil, 19.60 g protein, 22.35 g sugar, 0.208 g vitamin E.
     结果表明:每100g番茄所含油脂23 12g、粗蛋白19 60g、总糖22 35g,维生素E0 208g.
短句来源
     The effects of exogenous hormone (GA3 0. 10 g/L, CEPA 0. 10 g/L) and microelements (B 1. 50 g/L, Mn 1. 00 g/L, Mo 1. 00 g/L and Cu 0. 10 g/L) on enzyme activities in cotyledon of tea seeds during germination were investigated.
     研究了赤霉酸(GA_30.10g/L)、乙烯利(CEPA0.10g/L)、硼酸(B1.50g/L)、硫酸锰(Mn1.00g/L)、钼酸铵(Mo1.00g/L)、硫酸铜(Cu0.10g/L)溶液浸种处理对茶萌发过程中子叶酶活性的影响.
短句来源
     The seeds contain 23.12% oil,19.60% protein,22.35% total sugar,0.208% vitamin E.
     西红柿含23 12%的油,19 60%的蛋白质,22 35%的总糖,0 208%的维生素E。
短句来源
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  seeded
     Er,Yb co-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal was grown from a K2WO4 flux by the top seeded solution growth(TSSG) method.
     采用顶部晶熔盐法,以K2WO4为助熔剂生长出铒、镱共掺钨酸钆钾[Er,Yb:KGd(WO4)2简称Er,Yb:KGW]激光晶体。
短句来源
     In this paper, Yb~(3+) (5at.%): KY(WO_4)_2 (Yb:KYW) and KYb(WO_4)_2 (KYbW) laser crystals have been grown by the top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method and Kyropoulos method respectively.
     分别用顶部晶提拉法(TSSG)和泡生法生长出yb~(3+)(5at.%):KY(WO_4)_2(Yb:KYW)、KYb(WO_4)_2(KYbW)两种晶体。
短句来源
     Doping 0.01% Fe 2O 3 (in mass) and 10.9% K 2O (in mole) flux in raw materials of LiNbO 3 crystal, Fe doped near stoichiometric LiNbO 3 (SLN∶Fe) crystal were grown by top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method and Fe doped congruent LiNbO 3(CLN∶Fe) were grown by Czochralski method.
     在LiNbO3(LN)中掺进 0 .0 1%Fe2 O3(质量分数 )和 10 .9%K2 O(摩尔分数 )助熔剂 ,用顶部晶 (TSSG)法生长近化学计量比掺铁铌酸锂 (SLN∶Fe) ,以及采用Czochralski法生长同成分掺铁铌酸锂 (CLN∶Fe)。
短句来源
     Broad sense heritability h 2 B=69.88%~86.18% for the yellow seeded character, suggesting that the yellow seeded trait of mutant 933044 can inherit strongly.
     黄性状的广义遗传力h2B=69.88%~86.18%,表明突变体933044黄色种皮性状有较高的遗传能力。
短句来源
     Yb~ 3+ -doped KY(WO_4)_2 (Yb:KYW) laser crystal was grown by top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method.
     采用顶部晶提拉法(TSSG)生长出Yb:KY(WO4)2(Yb:KYW)激光晶体.
短句来源
更多       
  seeded solution
     Er,Yb co-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal was grown from a K2WO4 flux by the top seeded solution growth(TSSG) method.
     采用顶部晶熔盐法,以K2WO4为助熔剂生长出铒、镱共掺钨酸钆钾[Er,Yb:KGd(WO4)2简称Er,Yb:KGW]激光晶体。
短句来源
     In this paper, Yb~(3+) (5at.%): KY(WO_4)_2 (Yb:KYW) and KYb(WO_4)_2 (KYbW) laser crystals have been grown by the top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method and Kyropoulos method respectively.
     分别用顶部晶提拉法(TSSG)和泡生法生长出yb~(3+)(5at.%):KY(WO_4)_2(Yb:KYW)、KYb(WO_4)_2(KYbW)两种晶体。
短句来源
     Doping 0.01% Fe 2O 3 (in mass) and 10.9% K 2O (in mole) flux in raw materials of LiNbO 3 crystal, Fe doped near stoichiometric LiNbO 3 (SLN∶Fe) crystal were grown by top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method and Fe doped congruent LiNbO 3(CLN∶Fe) were grown by Czochralski method.
     在LiNbO3(LN)中掺进 0 .0 1%Fe2 O3(质量分数 )和 10 .9%K2 O(摩尔分数 )助熔剂 ,用顶部晶 (TSSG)法生长近化学计量比掺铁铌酸锂 (SLN∶Fe) ,以及采用Czochralski法生长同成分掺铁铌酸锂 (CLN∶Fe)。
短句来源
     Yb~ 3+ -doped KY(WO_4)_2 (Yb:KYW) laser crystal was grown by top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method.
     采用顶部晶提拉法(TSSG)生长出Yb:KY(WO4)2(Yb:KYW)激光晶体.
短句来源
     In this paper, Nd∶KGW multi wavelength laser crystal has been grown by mean of the top seeded solution method (TSSG).
     采用顶部晶熔盐法 (TSSG)生长出掺钕钨酸钾钆Nd∶KGd(WO4 ) 2 (Nd∶KGW)多波长激光晶体。
短句来源
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      seed
    Fitness analysis of seed and vegetative reproduction of clonal tree Symplocos laurina
          
    A bottleneck in sexual propagation appeared at the stage from seed to seedling, while in clonal propagation it appeared during the period from an asexual plantlet to a ramet.
          
    Based on the growth, wood property of the ortets, and rooting abilities of cuttings, 32 Pinus massoniana clones for pulp use were selected from forests of superior provenance, mixed families, and progeny test of seed orchard by two-step selection.
          
    Altitudinal patterns of the flora of seed plants of Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, south China
          
    Meanwhile, further investigations have also been made to the flora of Dawei Mountain, which has been accounted for in the literature, as Flora Yunnan, The Seed Plant in Yunnan, and so on.
          
    更多          
      seeds
    Mordenite composite membranes were prepared by means of coating a porous α-alumina support with nanosized mordenite seeds followed by hydrothermal crystallization.
          
    The modified poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) emulsion resin was obtained by in situ emulsion copolymerization using the PU as seeds in an autoclave.
          
    Endophyte-infected (EI) seeds of Lolium perenne L.
          
    were used to attain endophyte-free (EF) population by heating the seeds at 43°C for 15 min and then 57°C for 25 min.
          
    The seeds of all the four species could not germinate at 10 000 mg/L, and the growth of all plants were retarded under the 2 000 mg/L Al3+ treatment.
          
    更多          
      seeded
    A systematic investigation was performed on the influence of several factors such as ageing of the reaction mixture, alkalinity, salt addition and temperature on the formation of a mordenite membrane on the seeded support.
          
    Polymer beads with a diameter of 60-70 nm and specific functional groups were synthesized by a particular seeded emulsion polymerization technique.
          
    Bone mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the SIS, and the scaffold-cell constructs were cultured in vitro for 2 weeks.
          
    The growth of silicalite-1 membranes on different seeded supports by hydrothermal synthesis was also evaluated.
          
    With this method of seeded secondary synthesis of zeolite membranes, the quality of a membrane mainly depends on the quality of the seed layer.
          
    更多          
      seeded solution
    Periodic poling of magnesium-oxide-doped stoichiometric lithium niobate grown by the top-seeded solution method
          
    Magnesium-oxide-doped stoichiometric lithium niobate has been produced using the technique of top-seeded solution growth from a lithium-rich melt.
          
    We present the crystal growth of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 codoped with holmium and thulium by a top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling method.
          
    Thulium-doped KLuW macrodefect-free monoclinic single crystals (a*×b×c≈10×7×15?mm3) were grown by the top seeded solution growth slow cooling method with dopant concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% atomic in solution.
          
    We report the successful growth of an electroholographic crystal, potassium sodium tantalate niobate (KNTN), by a top-seeded solution growth method.
          
    更多          


    The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second...

    The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second one occursin mid-July and the last in late-August. Due to the lower temperature, theemergence of the first generation need about two months. 2. In day time, the adult is usually inactive, while in windless night,after seven o'clock, it becomes very active and lays eggs mostly on green bollsand calyx. about a week later, the eggs hatch and the newly-hatched larvaeare shortly getting into the bolls. After four days they often eat into theseeds. Ten days later, the lint is so stunted as to become dusky yellow incolor, thus both the yield and the quality of cotton are greatly lowered. Themature larvae appear about half a month after. 3. Field experiments have shown that three dustings of 10% DDT- sulfurpowder were very effective. In the severely damaged cotton area, the thirdspray may be simultaneously done with controlling the cotton leaf-hoppers andthe cotton leaf-rollers. 4. About 84% hibernating larvae in cotton seeds will come out when thecotton exposed in sun light and stored in the farmer's house. Hence it seemsadvisable to put cloth or other soft material covers on the cotton stored inorder to collect and kill the larvae under them. In addition, destruction of allremaining bolls on the cotton stalks, as early as possible in winter is important. 5. For controlling the bollworms in cotton store-houses, the followingresults have been obtained 50% wettable DDT diluted with 20 parts of water,91% of larvae were killed within 30 days; 6.5% 666 (benzene hexachloride)gave a mortality of 63% in four months. Wettable 6.5% 666 diluted withwater (1:100), has been proved to be the most effective ovicide which destroys99.4% of eggs while parathion (E605) also gave a very high mortality at97.7%. But 50% wettable DDT (1:100) Kills eggs at 64.2% and lead arsena-te only 16.2% respectively. 6. There were 39.1% overwintering larvae parasitized by parasitic mitesand wasps. Among them, most are the mite, Pediculoides ventricosus Newport,while the parasitic wasps Eurypterna arakawae Mats. less than 0.5%.

    红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:...

    红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%,砒酸铃最差为16.2%。 6.越冬幼虫被寄生的平均有39.1%,发现天敌有二种,其中绝大多数是榖痒螨(Pediculoides ventricosus

    In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf...

    In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf sheath and spike,particularly the bristle,while that onthe "green-stem" varieties was the yellowing of the leaf blade.In all instances,thediscoloration was usually accompanied by shortening of internode,stunting of thewhole plant.wrinkling of leaf surface,slight waviness of leaf margin,deformationof spike and underdevelopment of root systems.Plants infected at an early stagewere severely stunted and on heads were produced. It has been demonstrated that the red-leaf disease of the foxtail millet was causedby a virus readily transmitted by at least three different species of grain-infestingaphids:corn aphid,Rhopalostiphum maidis Fitch;grain aphid,Macrosiphum granari-um Kirby;and green-bug,Toxoptera graminum Rond.Tests with non-viruliferouscorn aphid eliminated the possibility of direct aphid injury as the cause of the disease. ??The virus was not transmissible by mechanical inoculation,by seeds nor through thesoil. Studies on the mode of transmission of red-leaf virus by corn aphid indicatedthat the virus was persistent in its insect vector and could infect in succession aseries of at least 27 tested millet seedlings.The aphid was unable to acquire thevirus in a 5-minute feedling period on the virus source but was able to pick up thevirus in 10-minute period.The 8-hour acquisition feeding period was optimum forthis aphid.The testing feeding period was found to be not more than 5 minutesand a 4-hour period of confinement on the diseased plant was ample for the aphidto cause maximum infection.Attempts to transmit the virus with cotton aphid.Aphisgossypii Gloner peach aphid,Aphis persicae Sehult and soybean aphid,Aphis glycinesMats,have given negative results.The incubation period for symptoms of the red-leaf virus in foxtail millet ranged from 10 to 32 days with the model period beingbetween 14 to 20 days. Under natural conditions,certain cultivated cereals and grass weeds showed thesymptoms resembling the red-leaf disease of foxtail millet.Among them,were ZeaMays L.,Panicum miliaceum L.,Setaria lutescens (Weigel) Hubb.,S.viridis (L.)Beauv.,Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Roem.,Eragrostiscilianensis (All.) Link,E.pilosa (L.) Beauv.,Arundinella anomala Steud,Spodiopogonsibiricus (Steud.) Trin.,Bothruochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.,Capillipedium parviflor-um (R.Br.) Stapf and Poa practensis L..Artificial inoculation with the corn aphidproved that the first six named plant species,including the two cereals,were susce-ptible to the red-leaf virus and they produced,in all cases,the typical symptoms.Tests with the rest sexen grass weeds are in progress. The results of disease control experiments by timely spraying with an insecticide,E605,under field conditions were inconsistent.Among the 349 foxtail millet varie-ties of foxtail millet examined in the experimental field,nine of them were foundto be highly torelant to and suffered only very slightly from the attack of the red-leaf virus.These varieties were,however,succeptible in aphid transmission experiments. Available evidences point to the conclusion that the red-leaf virus of the foxtail millet herin reported is quite different from all the previously described cereal viruses.Among the cereal virus that closely resembles the red-leaf virus is the yellow-dwarfvirus reported by Oswald tnd Hauston.These two viruses are similar in the follow-ing respects:both are transmissible by the same species of aphids (Rhopalosiphummaidis,Microsiphum graminium andToxoptera granarium) and neither virus can betransferred mechanically.But they differ strikingly from each other in their hostranges.According to Oswald and Hauston,there were 19 of 55 grasses tested thatappeared to be immune from the yellow-dwarf virus.Digitaria sanguinalis,Echino-chloa crus-galli Setaria viridis and Zea Mays were among the immune hosts.On thecontary,all these four gramineous plants were found to be extremely susceptible tothe red-leaf virus both under natural condition and in artificial inoculation experi-ments.Accordingly,the red-leaf,a persistent aphid borne virus affecting the foxtailmillet,is herein reported as a new virus of the cereals.

    小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、...

    小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、六月禾和大油芒均感染小米紅叶病病毒。其它紅化杂草和接种試驗,正在进行中。紅叶病病毒对小米植株所产生的影响,因植株發育的阶段不同而輕重有所差异,植株感病愈早病害愈剧烈。用杀虫剂E605在田間噴射小米防治紅叶病,未能表現药剂有防病的效能,在田間观察349个品种,选得9个高度耐病和农艺性状优良的品种。抗病选种可能是当前防治小米紅叶病最有效的防治措施。根据病原的傳染方法,寄主范围和所表現的症状,小米紅叶病病毒和以往所报道的禾本科植物的病毒病害的病毒均不相同,因此它是禾谷类作物的一个新的病毒。

    Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different...

    Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different culture media such as PDA, acidified PDA, cotton meal agar and rice agar. All these plates failed to show verticillium colonies. Among the fungi obtained in these plates, Fusarium, Alternaria and Colletotrichum were the most frequent. Since both Verticillium albo-atrum and other fungi were harbored within the same seed, the difference of growth rates might be considered as an important factor involved in the difficulty of the isolations: Cultures of V. albo-atrum and Fusarium sp. were transferred simutaneously to PDA plates to test their growth rates. The diameter of their colonies were measured after incubation for 12 days under 22±1℃. Those of V. albo-atrum measured 2.8 cm., while the average of the latter was 9,3 cm. Interference of the fast-growers might render a slow-grower such as V. albo-atrum to be masked in the observations and to be depressed in the isolations. A method was developed to avoid the interference. The fundamental procedures of the method are outlined as follows. 1. Plating and observation. (1) Cotton seeds being delinted with commercial surphuric acid in order to avoid the interference from lint-born contaminants. (2) Delinted seeds being washed in a flask covered with wire gauze for 24 hours under running tap water in order to get rid of bacteria. Absorption of sufficient water during washing activates the hibernating mycelium. (3) Seeds being plated on 1.7% water agar instead of nutrient agar in order to diminish the growth of the fast-growers such as Fusaria and Alternaria. The plates being incubated under 22±1℃. for 15 days. (4) The plates being uncovered and observed directly under low-power microscope in order to observe the fungi undisturbed. 2. Isolation and preservation of the Verticillium cultures. (1) Verticilliate conidiophores being located under low-power microscope. (2) The tip of a flamed needle moistened with sterile agar being introduced within the microscopic field in order to fish the spores under focus. (3) Spore suspension being made by washing the needle in a 5 cc sterile water blank. (4) Dilution plates being made by placing 1 cc of the spore suspension in a petri dish and diluting with 10 cc of cotton stem agar. (5) The plates being observed under low-power microscope after incubation for 5—7 days at 22±1℃. (6) Verticillium colonies being locatad and a bit of the margin of a colony being transferred to PDA slant. (7) The slant cultures being flooded with sterile liquid paraffin after incubation for 7—15 days at 22±1℃. The cultures preserved with liquid paraffin were able to keep alived for 2 years. Seeds collected from the infected plants in 1955, 1956 and 1957 were studied. The percentages of seeds carrying Verticillium observed in these years were 39.8, 5.92 and 9.5% respectively. One of the representative single spore colonies obtained was identified as V. albo—atrum. Inoculation and reisolation tests showed positive results. Inspection of cotton seed samples collected from eight co-op farms in Shensi Province in 1958 showing that the percentages of seeds infected by verticillium ranged 3 to 23% with an average of 12.3%.

    (1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉解...

    (1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉外部的短絨內,并且也存在于壳及仁上。(6) 从棉上分离到的轮枝菌特8号經初步鉴定系Verticillium albo-atrum Reinkeet Berth。(7) 特8号菌种經过接种試驗,确定其具有一定的致病力,并从再分离中获得該菌。(8) 棉是否能够传播黄萎病,似系一个检查方法問題。还希各方面进行测定,通过多次的检查和接种試驗始能充分确定。(9) 在分离的菌种中,除特8号菌种具有較深的菌落色泽外,还有一些菌种的顏色較淡,未須鑑定。棉所带的轮枝菌类型不一,还有进一步研究的必要。此外,棉內的輪枝菌和其他一些菌类究竟如何进入內,也有研究的价值。

     
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