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     An Optimized Calculation Method for Adjusting the Frequency of Free Torsional Vibration of Diesel Engines
     调整柴油机扭振自振频率的优化计算办法
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     对铁路运输收入分配办法的研究
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     MISTAKES IN READING TAPE BY THE PC-1500 COMPUTER AND THE PROCESSING METHOD
     PC—1500机读磁带错误原因及其处理办法
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     Suggestions on Establishment and Reinforcement of Management Method of Railway Refrigerator Cars
     对建立和加强我国铁路冰冷藏车管理办法的建议
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     The Causes That Influence the Percentage of Passed Screw Cap Canned Products and Their Control Method
     影响旋开盖罐头成品合格率的原因及控制办法
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     Extra Noise and Methods to Repress It in Agile Radar
     捷变频雷达的附加噪声及抑制办法
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     A DISCUSSION ON IMPROVING POWER CALCULATION METHODS IN ENERGY BALANCE TABLE
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     A Discussion on the Inferential Function of MYCIN and its Modification
     Mycin的推理机制的探讨及改进办法
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     REFORMIMG THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF LABS &. WAY OF INVESTMENT IN IT IN NINGXIA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE
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     ON WAYS OF CONTRACTING FOR GOLD RESERVES——IMMEDIATE REFORMS ARE REQUIRED
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In this note we present a very simple method of proving that some hyperbolic manifoldsM have finite sheeted covers with positive first Betti number.
      
The method applies to the standard arithmetic subgroups ofSO(n,1) (a case which was proved previously by Millson [Mi]), to the non-arithmetic lattices inSO(n,1) constructed by Gromov and Piatetski-Shapiro [GPS] and to groups generated by reflections.
      
(HereM3 denotes the vector space of 3×3 matrices over k andp>amp;gt;3.) The method of proof involves an induction, and is potentially of wide applicability.
      
The proof is based on a variant of Moser's method using time-dependent vector fields.
      
In the second part we apply this method to obtain pseudo-Riemannian homogeneous manifolds with real Killing spinors.
      
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The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second...

The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second one occursin mid-July and the last in late-August. Due to the lower temperature, theemergence of the first generation need about two months. 2. In day time, the adult is usually inactive, while in windless night,after seven o'clock, it becomes very active and lays eggs mostly on green bollsand calyx. about a week later, the eggs hatch and the newly-hatched larvaeare shortly getting into the bolls. After four days they often eat into theseeds. Ten days later, the lint is so stunted as to become dusky yellow incolor, thus both the yield and the quality of cotton are greatly lowered. Themature larvae appear about half a month after. 3. Field experiments have shown that three dustings of 10% DDT- sulfurpowder were very effective. In the severely damaged cotton area, the thirdspray may be simultaneously done with controlling the cotton leaf-hoppers andthe cotton leaf-rollers. 4. About 84% hibernating larvae in cotton seeds will come out when thecotton exposed in sun light and stored in the farmer's house. Hence it seemsadvisable to put cloth or other soft material covers on the cotton stored inorder to collect and kill the larvae under them. In addition, destruction of allremaining bolls on the cotton stalks, as early as possible in winter is important. 5. For controlling the bollworms in cotton store-houses, the followingresults have been obtained 50% wettable DDT diluted with 20 parts of water,91% of larvae were killed within 30 days; 6.5% 666 (benzene hexachloride)gave a mortality of 63% in four months. Wettable 6.5% 666 diluted withwater (1:100), has been proved to be the most effective ovicide which destroys99.4% of eggs while parathion (E605) also gave a very high mortality at97.7%. But 50% wettable DDT (1:100) Kills eggs at 64.2% and lead arsena-te only 16.2% respectively. 6. There were 39.1% overwintering larvae parasitized by parasitic mitesand wasps. Among them, most are the mite, Pediculoides ventricosus Newport,while the parasitic wasps Eurypterna arakawae Mats. less than 0.5%.

红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉籽内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.籽花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将籽花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%...

红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉籽内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.籽花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将籽花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%,砒酸铃最差为16.2%。 6.越冬幼虫被寄生的平均有39.1%,发现天敌有二种,其中绝大多数是榖痒螨(Pediculoides ventricosus

The rice stem borer, Chilo Simplex Butler causes great damage to therice crop in the medium semi-glutinous rice region, long water rice region,and late semi-glutinous rice region in Kiangsu. Rice stem borer has two generations a year. The first generation is mostabundant between mid-and late July. The second generation is most abundantin mid-late August. In 1952 and 1953, the borer had had reached and suchabundance cave in the middle of September, that a third incomplete generationseemed probable. Experimental...

The rice stem borer, Chilo Simplex Butler causes great damage to therice crop in the medium semi-glutinous rice region, long water rice region,and late semi-glutinous rice region in Kiangsu. Rice stem borer has two generations a year. The first generation is mostabundant between mid-and late July. The second generation is most abundantin mid-late August. In 1952 and 1953, the borer had had reached and suchabundance cave in the middle of September, that a third incomplete generationseemed probable. Experimental result shows that late sowing and late transplanting of riceminimized borer damage.

(一)二化螟在江苏省中粳区、沤田区及晚粳区为害严重,大部分枯心苗均为其造成。白穗中幼虫数目相当高,最多一株有137头。 (二)二化螟的发蛾期,一般来讲,第一代盛发期约在6月中、下旬。第二代盛发期约在8月中、下旬。根据观察记载资料,望亭一带,1952年、1953年均在9月中、下旬又起高峰,可能有不完全第三代的出现。 (三)试验记录中指出,人为的移栽对蚁螟的生存,有抑制作用。在栽培制度上,应控制第一代蛾螟卵盛孵期,在秧田内进行。以期达到水稻少受二化螟的为害。 (四)水稻受二化螟为害后,除造成枯心苗白穗外,并造成有虫株。其百分率最高占14.5%。有虫株穗与健穗,穗重相差0.46克。千粒重最高相差3.09克。 (五)在稻根稻草中,二化螟越冬比例,稻根为43.41%,稻草为56.59%。 (六)在不同播种期;移栽期各处理间,受二化螟为害,差异显著。望亭一带适宜播种期、移植期,以5月25日播种,6月28日移栽为最佳。 (七)第一代螟卵之寄生率平均为25.46%。寄生蜂种类有:(1)日本赤眼蜂,(2)稻螟黑卵蜂。 (八)在防治上,除运用行之有效的治螟办法,如秧田捕蛾采卵、点灯诱蛾、剪除枯心苗和白穗、保护寄生蜂、...

(一)二化螟在江苏省中粳区、沤田区及晚粳区为害严重,大部分枯心苗均为其造成。白穗中幼虫数目相当高,最多一株有137头。 (二)二化螟的发蛾期,一般来讲,第一代盛发期约在6月中、下旬。第二代盛发期约在8月中、下旬。根据观察记载资料,望亭一带,1952年、1953年均在9月中、下旬又起高峰,可能有不完全第三代的出现。 (三)试验记录中指出,人为的移栽对蚁螟的生存,有抑制作用。在栽培制度上,应控制第一代蛾螟卵盛孵期,在秧田内进行。以期达到水稻少受二化螟的为害。 (四)水稻受二化螟为害后,除造成枯心苗白穗外,并造成有虫株。其百分率最高占14.5%。有虫株穗与健穗,穗重相差0.46克。千粒重最高相差3.09克。 (五)在稻根稻草中,二化螟越冬比例,稻根为43.41%,稻草为56.59%。 (六)在不同播种期;移栽期各处理间,受二化螟为害,差异显著。望亭一带适宜播种期、移植期,以5月25日播种,6月28日移栽为最佳。 (七)第一代螟卵之寄生率平均为25.46%。寄生蜂种类有:(1)日本赤眼蜂,(2)稻螟黑卵蜂。 (八)在防治上,除运用行之有效的治螟办法,如秧田捕蛾采卵、点灯诱蛾、剪除枯心苗和白穗、保护寄生蜂、处理稻根外,在栽培制度上,如何利用适宜播种期,减轻或免除二化螟灾害,为今后值得注意的问题。

The so-called "truss rigid frames" are those rigid frames with trusses as their horizontal beams, of which the two ends are rigidly connected to columns. Within the author's knowledge, all the methods available at present for analyzing such rigid frames are based on Certain special assumptions such as (1) that the positions of the points of contra-flexure in all the columns are previously known; (2) that the end rotations of a truss may be reprensented by that of its assumed line of axis as in the case of an...

The so-called "truss rigid frames" are those rigid frames with trusses as their horizontal beams, of which the two ends are rigidly connected to columns. Within the author's knowledge, all the methods available at present for analyzing such rigid frames are based on Certain special assumptions such as (1) that the positions of the points of contra-flexure in all the columns are previously known; (2) that the end rotations of a truss may be reprensented by that of its assumed line of axis as in the case of an ordinary beam; or (3) that the end verticals of trusses may be given certain prescribed deformations. Of course, the adoption of any of such assumptions leads to only approximate results inconsistent with the actual deformations of such rigid frames under any loading. Heretofore, the author did not know any correct method for analyzing such rigid frames. In this paper, the author presents two principles of the correct analysis of truss rigid frames. The first principle is that of "moment action on column" for computing the angle change constants of columns, and the second principle is that of "effect of span-change in truss" for computing the angle and span change constants of trusses.As, for computing the angle change constants of a truss, the dummy unit moment is a couple applied to its end verticals, so, for computing the angle change constants of a column, the dummy unit moment must also be a couple applied to the section of column rigidly connected to the end of a truss, in order to effect a consistent deformation at the joint of the two. This is the first principle.A truss just like a curved or gabled beam of which the effect of span-change can not be neglected, so truss rigid frames belong to the same category of what may be called "span-change" rigid frames such as rigid frames with curved or gabled beams. Therefore the span-change constants of trusses should be included besides their angle-change constants for analyzing truss rigid frames. This is the second principle.With the constants of columns and trusses are all computed in accordance with respectively the first and second principles mentioned above, truss rigid frames may be analyzed by any method including the effect of span-change as in the case of rigid frames with curved or gabled beams, and the results thus obtained will be exactly the same as by the method of least work or deflections without any special assumptions.In this paper, after the two principles are described and the formulas for computing the constants of columns and trusses are derived, the correctness of the two principles are then proved by the methods of least work, deflections and slope-deflection. A two-span truss rigid frame is analyzed under the following three conditions:Ⅰ. Applying both of the two principles to obtain the correct results.Ⅱ. Applying only the first principle to show the discrepancies of neglecting the effect of span-change in trusses as born out by comparing the results of Ⅱ with Ⅰ.Ⅲ. Applying neither of the two principles, and the truss rigid frames being analyzed by the special assumption (2) mentioned above with the line of axis at the bottom chord of truss, in order to show the discrepancies of neglecting the moment action on column as born out by comparing the results of Ⅲ with Ⅱ. For the sake of brevity, only the results are given in Tables 1 to 5 without computations in details.Although the discrepancies of neglecting the moment acticn on column are only slight as shown by comparing the results of Ⅲ with Ⅱ in Tables 2, 4 and 5, there is no reason why special assumptions should not be replaced by the correct principle of moment action on column to obtain correct results. As shown by comparing the results of Ⅱ with Ⅰ in Tables 2, 4 and 5, the discrepancies by neglecting the span change in trusses are generally considerable and, in certain particular part, as large as 3000%. Therefore, for the safe and economical design of truss rigid frames, the effect of span-change in trusses should not be neglected in their analysis.Finally, for analyzing co

所謂“桁架剛構”即以桁架為横梁与柱相剛接之剛構。現下採用分析剛構之任一方法,以分析此項剛構时,均須採用種種特殊之假定而得近似之結果。據著者所知,中外書刊中似尚无此項剛構之正確分析法。於本文中,著者發表关於桁架剛構正確分析之兩項原理,即柱頂力矩作用与桁架跨变影響之兩项原理。前項原理使柱頂段之角夔与桁架端豎桿相同,以符合柱与桁架剛接处之連续性。後項原理指出桁架与曲梁(即拱)及折梁(即山墙式梁)相同係一種“跨变横梁”,故桁架刚構亦与拱式及山墙式剛構相同,係一種“跨变剛構”。若根據此兩项原理,分别计算柱与桁架兩端的撓曲常数,再用分析跨变刚構之任一分析法以分析此項刚構,則所得之枯果,与不作任何特殊假定用最少功法或变位法所得者完全相同。本文先說明此兩项原理及根據此兩項原理计算柱与桁架撓曲常數之方法。次取一最簡單之桁架刚構为例,證明此丙項原理之正確性。桁架刚構既与拱式及山墙式刚構同属於跨变刚構一類型,分析後者之任何方法均可用以分析前者,本文无須贅述。但取一兩跨之桁架刚構為例,列举所得之正確結果,与用近似法所得者相比较,藉以顯出近似法有相當巨大之差誤。關於階形之複式桁架刚構之分析,本文用“代替桁架”之辦法,但只說明其原則,不...

所謂“桁架剛構”即以桁架為横梁与柱相剛接之剛構。現下採用分析剛構之任一方法,以分析此項剛構时,均須採用種種特殊之假定而得近似之結果。據著者所知,中外書刊中似尚无此項剛構之正確分析法。於本文中,著者發表关於桁架剛構正確分析之兩項原理,即柱頂力矩作用与桁架跨变影響之兩项原理。前項原理使柱頂段之角夔与桁架端豎桿相同,以符合柱与桁架剛接处之連续性。後項原理指出桁架与曲梁(即拱)及折梁(即山墙式梁)相同係一種“跨变横梁”,故桁架刚構亦与拱式及山墙式剛構相同,係一種“跨变剛構”。若根據此兩项原理,分别计算柱与桁架兩端的撓曲常数,再用分析跨变刚構之任一分析法以分析此項刚構,則所得之枯果,与不作任何特殊假定用最少功法或变位法所得者完全相同。本文先說明此兩项原理及根據此兩項原理计算柱与桁架撓曲常數之方法。次取一最簡單之桁架刚構为例,證明此丙項原理之正確性。桁架刚構既与拱式及山墙式刚構同属於跨变刚構一類型,分析後者之任何方法均可用以分析前者,本文无須贅述。但取一兩跨之桁架刚構為例,列举所得之正確結果,与用近似法所得者相比较,藉以顯出近似法有相當巨大之差誤。關於階形之複式桁架刚構之分析,本文用“代替桁架”之辦法,但只說明其原則,不列出公式及算例。

 
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