The model for calculating the firm power of cascade hydropower stations is a large scale maxmin model, an efficient algorithm named effective calculating period algorithm (MM-NC-A) for simplifying the calculation of it is presented in this paper. The calculation results show that the proposed algorithm is very practical and efficient.

This paper,considering power output electricity and firm power objectives, sets up the multiobjective optimization model for reservoir dispatching, and presents the constraint method and the interactive decision method to solve this model. A case study is used to show the effectiveness of this method.

The reservoir has a seasonal regulation function, with its regulating capacity of 302 Mm\+3, and normal pool level of 300 m. The firm power of the station is 49.7 MW and its average annual generation is 1.071 billion kW·h.

The calculation method of the firm power of cascaded hydropower stations system is described in brief not considering up-downriver stations' runoff compensation, and this paper puts forward the general calculation method of the firm power of main-reservoir cascaded hydropower stations based on runoff compensation.

THE HIERARCHICAL OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY OF LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS FOR DETERMINING THE OPTI MAL DEAD STORAGE LEVELS AND THE GUARANTEED OUTPUT OF HYDRO RESERVOIRS IN CASCADES

The routine operation chart of hydropower station is the basic dependence to make certain the operation of the reservoir. The upper and lower basic operation lines are the border terms for the power station running to deliver guaranteed output.

In the calculation of hydraulic energy design program for a series of terraced hydroelectric stations in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the interpolation 11 successive years of dry period in history for Shan County was invariably adopted, resulting in appreciable reduction in the designed guaranteed output and annual power generation as well as in benefit as compared with designs made according to actual test data.

This paper presents the application of POA in calculation of compensation adjustment among the cascade hydropower stations. The maximum guaranteed output among the cascade stations and the optimal allocation method among them have also been proposed.

After the completion of Longtan Hydropower Station,it not only could increase the guaranteed output of about one million kW in 6 downstream cascade hydropower stations,but also,if conducting the compensation regulation with the Three Gorges Project on the occasion and exchanging the power between Southern Power Grid and Huazhong Power Grid,could enhance the guaranteed output of 1. 5-2. 5 million kW.

Through power dispatching diagram design based on the scheme of diverting water from reservoir in two design level years of 2008 and 2020 for urban water supply and by analysis on the three indexes in regulation calculation, i.e., dependable output, corresponding dependability and perennial average power yield, the impact of diverting water from the reservoir is finally ascertained on power generation effect of Furong Hydropower Station.

Pubugou hydropower station is a state key project and a symbol of western development, located in Hanyuan and Ganluo County, Sichuan Province, has 3300MW installed capacity, 926MW firm output and 51.77 billion m3 total storage capacity , the project is built for electricity generation, flood control, sand barrage, etc.

In comparing with the conventional rules of using reservoir dispatching curves, firm output and average annual generaton of the hydropower plants would be increased by 9.6% and 4.6% respectirely, so that the expenditure of fuels for the thermal power plants in the local electric system could be reduced by 30,000 tons per year.

It plays huge role in enhancing the firm output of Wujiang cascade hydropower stations, reducing the water releasing volume for peaking in the downstream cascade hydro stations in Guizhou Power System.

The calculation of firm output is one important part in the design of hydropower station,and the adopted calculation method varies with the regulation ability of the reservoirs.

The system performance measure used in the BSDP model is the square of the deviation of the total power generated from the total firm power committed and the objective function is to minimize the expected value of the system performance measure.

The second-best Pareto optimal mechanism also is implemented by an allocation mechanism based on the consumer's choice of a minimum demand or firm power level.

Determine the feasibility of entering into a medium-term firm power sale during the Company's surplus years.

Following this reasoning, we expect that the greater the CO of an organisation, the better will be its financial performance as firm power increases.

Following this, we predict that CO, will result in lower customer satisfaction and value as firm power increases.

In this setting we demonstrate that the optimal employment contract, from the perspective of the firm hiring the manager, is the contract whichminimizes the dependence of the manager's compensation on firm output.

This paper develops flexibility measures in the context of a multi-firm output based on a generalized average cost function.

In contrast, other writers have trumpeted the productivity gains from worker cooperation and thus, argued that wage disparity lowers firm output.

An analysis of changes in firm output, exports, and profit is pursued in these chapters.

For each output level, there were 41 unique two-firm output combinations for basic, and premium and pay services.

Based on the theories of dynamic programming and Markovian decision process, a general-purpose computer program has been worked out in this paper to obtain the optimal regulating chart of a hydroelectric station in Sichuan province with long-term regulating storage reservoir connecting with several short-term regulating stations in a system. The mathematical proof of the convergence of recurrence computation and the optimality of result is given.When the economic losses incurred by the deficiency of power supply...

Based on the theories of dynamic programming and Markovian decision process, a general-purpose computer program has been worked out in this paper to obtain the optimal regulating chart of a hydroelectric station in Sichuan province with long-term regulating storage reservoir connecting with several short-term regulating stations in a system. The mathematical proof of the convergence of recurrence computation and the optimality of result is given.When the economic losses incurred by the deficiency of power supply cannot be estimated, it is suggested to seek through trial-and error computation the result corresponding to the specified probability that normal supply will be guaranteed. The authous also explore the fuzzy optimal control decision problem occurred in practice. Further, a probabilistic method can be used for deriving the probability distribution of water storage at any moment within a year and also other operating characteristics as well as economic indices. In comparison with the conventional method, additional guaranteed output of the system and 1-2% increment of average annual energy generation has been obtained.

This paper attemps to expound computation of the firm power of hydroelectric plant systems. The system mode,the criterion and the objective function for calculating the firm power are described, and a computation method for the firm power is proposed based on the dynamic programming theory. Some author's suggestions are also presented here.

On the basis of principles of system engineering, a mathematical model (nonlinear program) for the problem of designing the active volume for serially linked reservoir system is provided. The objective function that is chosen is the maximization of the firm power for hydroelectric stations subject to turbine operating requirements. An application of the model to Driver with 17 cascade reservoirs, Sichuan province, PRC, shows a successful use of the flexible tolerance method in conjunction with computer technique。...

On the basis of principles of system engineering, a mathematical model (nonlinear program) for the problem of designing the active volume for serially linked reservoir system is provided. The objective function that is chosen is the maximization of the firm power for hydroelectric stations subject to turbine operating requirements. An application of the model to Driver with 17 cascade reservoirs, Sichuan province, PRC, shows a successful use of the flexible tolerance method in conjunction with computer technique。