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量子
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  quantum
    Effect of Water Stress on Photosynthetic Quantum Yield in Bean Leaf Discs
    水分胁迫对菜豆叶片光合量子产额的影响
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    QUANTUM MODEL OF DNA MUTATION BY He-Ne LASER
    He-Ne激光引起DNA突变的量子模式
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    QUANTUM THEORY OF TAKENO SOLITON
    TAKENO孤子的量子理论
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    PRESENT AND PROSPECT OF CALCULATION METHODS OF QUANTUM PHARMACOLOGY
    量子药理学计算方法的现状和展望
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    Preliminary Quantum Biology study on Messenge Molecule NO in NerVous System
    神经系统信使分子NO的量子生物学初探
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  “量子”译为未确定词的双语例句
    STUDY OF INTRACELLULAR SODIUM USING DOUBLE-QUANTUM ILTRATION NMR
    双量子滤波(DQF)核磁共振研究细胞内钠
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    Comparatively,the maximum photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm),actual photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(ФPSⅡ) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient(qNP) of Forsythia suspensa seedlings under low N treatment were higher than that under high N treatment.
    LN处理幼苗的PSⅡ最大光化学量子效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ电子传递量子效率(ФPSⅡ)均较HN处理的高,不同供氮处理下LR处理幼苗的Fv/Fm均较HR处理的高;
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    The chlorophyll(Chl a and Chl b) contents in the non-polluted population decreased significantly with the increase of Cu concentration,while in the two mine populations,the chlorophyll(Chl a and Chl b) contents increased with lower Cu treatment.
    表观量子产额在两个矿区种群中没有明显的变化,低Cu(5和20μmol/L)处理促进了矿区种群叶绿素(Chl a和Chl b)含量的增加,而非矿区种群的这两个指标则随处理浓度的增加而迅速下降。
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    Salt treatment did not show any obvious effects on the maximal efficiency of the maximal efficiency of PS II photochemistry (Fv/Fm), the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reaction centers (Fv'/Fm'), the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the efficiency of excitation capture by open PS II ( ps II).
    盐处理对所有实验植物的光系统Ⅱ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、反应中心能量捕获效率(Fv'/Fm')、实际量子产率(ΦPSⅡ)、光化学猝灭系数(qP)等影响不显著:但对碳同化有明显影响。
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    The action spectra of NADP photoreduction with reduced DCPIP as electron donor to exclude the oxygen evolution steps(±CMU), were also studied (Fig. 26, c). Contrary to Arnon's result, their action spectra are also essentially similar to that of the K_3Fe(CN)_6+DCPIP system between 620-685mμ.
    同时还测定了不包括放氧步骤的NADP+DCPIPH_2+维生素C及NADP+DCPIPH_2+维生素C+CMU两系统的作用光谱,它们在620—685mμ范围内的相对量子效率与K_3Fe(CN)_6系统相仿,但对705mμ光的利用效率相对地要比K_3Fe(CN)_6系统高一些。
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  quantum
We consider some remarkable central elements of the universal enveloping algebraU(gl(n)) which we call quantum immanants.
      
They result in many nontrivial properties of quantum immanants.
      
Quantum integrable systems and differential Galois theory
      
This paper is devoted to a systematic study of quantum completely integrable systems (i.e., complete systems of commuting differential operators) from the point of view of algebraic geometry.
      
We study the tensor category of tilting modules over a quantum groupUq with divided powers.
      
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Chloroplasts, prepared from fresh, prechilled spinach leaves by the method of Jagendorf andAvron, were suspended in Tris buffer (25 μmoles, pH 8.4) containing MgCl_2 (6 μmoles), ADP(3 μmoles), P~(32)-labelled phosphate (3 μmoles), NaCl (25 μmoles) and the different cofactors. Totalvolume of the reaction mixture was 1.25 ml, containing 30-40 μg chlorophyll. Preliminary experi-ments showed that at the low illumination intensity for quantum yield determinations the optimal quan-ties of the co-factors were: PMS...

Chloroplasts, prepared from fresh, prechilled spinach leaves by the method of Jagendorf andAvron, were suspended in Tris buffer (25 μmoles, pH 8.4) containing MgCl_2 (6 μmoles), ADP(3 μmoles), P~(32)-labelled phosphate (3 μmoles), NaCl (25 μmoles) and the different cofactors. Totalvolume of the reaction mixture was 1.25 ml, containing 30-40 μg chlorophyll. Preliminary experi-ments showed that at the low illumination intensity for quantum yield determinations the optimal quan-ties of the co-factors were: PMS or FMN, 0.005 μmole, vitamin K_3, 0.03 μmole, and of the Hilloxidants were: K_3Fe(CN)_6 0.6 μmole, TPN 0.2 μmole. Neon tube with dilute ammoniacal CuSO_4 solution and red-glass filters was used as light source.The wave length range was 620-660 mμ and the intensity was 6-8×10~3 ergs/cm~2/sec. Energydeterminations were made with a blackened constantin-copper thermopile, the absolute energy wascalibrated by the amount of heat produced electrically at the surface of the thermopile. The calcu-lated number of quanta was counter-checked by chlorophyllide actinometer according to Warburg.Light scattering was corrected by the ground glass method of Shibata. Phosphorylation rates weremeasured by ATP~(32) formed according to the method of Nielsen and Lehninger. No incorporation of P~32 was detectable in the dark. To avoid loss of activity preparations were conducted near 0℃ and experiments were completedwithin 10 minutes including isolation of chloroplasts. Representative results are given in Tab. 1. The following conclusions can be drawn. (1) The quantum requirement of cyclic photophosphorylation is between 2.9-6.5 (generally4-5) per molecule of ATP formed, irrespective of the co-factors used,. Although at high lightintensities PMS can be twice as active as vitamin K_3 or FMN, their quantum yields are the same. (2) Same numerical results are obtained with heat deproteinized leaf extract in place of co-factors. (Tab. 3). (3) Non-cyclic photophosphorylation with K_3Fe(CN)_6 or with TPN shows the same quantumrequirement of 4-6. (Tab.1). Apparently one and the same electron transport system is involvedin both types of phosphorylation and there exists probably only one phosphorylation site. However,the possibility of a second easily inactivated site is not excluded. (4) The simultaneously measured Hill reaction requires 9-12 quanta per molecule of O_2evolved with or without photophosphorylation (+ or -ADP, Tab.2). The result corroboratesthose of other workers. It further shows that under the conditions of the present experiment cou-pling is complete (P/2e = 1), and that no extra quantum is needed for the coupled formation ofATP. (5) The quantum requirement of both cyclic and noncyclic phosphorylation increased withdecreasing light intensity within the range used (1.3-6.0×103 ergs/cm~2/sec.) (Tab. 4), whereasthat of O_2 production by the Hill reaction remains constant, thus resulting in a progressive uncou-pling of phosphorylation from the electron transport chain. The relationship between the present results and the quantum requirement of photosyntheticCO_2-reduction is discussed. That at low intensities of illumination used in the present experimentsthe number of quanta required for 2 TPNH and 2 ATP formation equals to that of photosynthesisunder these conditions (~compensation point) indicated that cyclic production of ATP is perhapsnot involved and the extra ATP needed for CO_2-reduction in the Calvin cycle must come fromsome other source, e.g. respiration. That at higher light intensities (several times compensationpoint) the quantum requirement of photosynthesis increases is probably due to the coming into playof the photochemically inefficient cyclic photophosphorylation.

用菠菜叶绿体悬浮液,在红光下(620—660mμ,6—8×10~3尔格/厘米~2-秒)测定同位素P~(32)标记的无机磷酸进入ATP的强度,并根据吸收的光能量换算为形成一个分子ATP所需要的红光量子数。结果指出: (1)循环光合磷酸化作用,不论用何种辅助因素(PMS,维生素K_3,FMN),形成一个分子ATP的量子需要量均在4—5之间(最低一次获得2.9)。叶提取液代替辅助因素,结果亦同。(2)与希尔反应偶联的光合磷酸化作用(希尔氧化剂为K_3Fe(CN)_6或TPN)的量子需要量亦是4—6。同时测定的还原作用指出希尔反应中每放出一个分子O_2,需要8—12个红光量子,表示在试验条件下,二者是完全偶联的(P/2e?1)。没有磷酸化(不加ADP及P_i)时,希尔反应的量子需要量不变,表示偶联的ATP形成不需额外的光量子。(3)光强度减低,则循环与非循环光合磷酸化作用的效率随之降低,量子需要量增加,而希尔反应的效率则不变。从上述结果推论,两种光合磷酸化作用均是通过同一的电子传递系统,在此系统中仅有一个磷酸化部位,除非另有一个部位是...

用菠菜叶绿体悬浮液,在红光下(620—660mμ,6—8×10~3尔格/厘米~2-秒)测定同位素P~(32)标记的无机磷酸进入ATP的强度,并根据吸收的光能量换算为形成一个分子ATP所需要的红光量子数。结果指出: (1)循环光合磷酸化作用,不论用何种辅助因素(PMS,维生素K_3,FMN),形成一个分子ATP的量子需要量均在4—5之间(最低一次获得2.9)。叶提取液代替辅助因素,结果亦同。(2)与希尔反应偶联的光合磷酸化作用(希尔氧化剂为K_3Fe(CN)_6或TPN)的量子需要量亦是4—6。同时测定的还原作用指出希尔反应中每放出一个分子O_2,需要8—12个红光量子,表示在试验条件下,二者是完全偶联的(P/2e?1)。没有磷酸化(不加ADP及P_i)时,希尔反应的量子需要量不变,表示偶联的ATP形成不需额外的光量子。(3)光强度减低,则循环与非循环光合磷酸化作用的效率随之降低,量子需要量增加,而希尔反应的效率则不变。从上述结果推论,两种光合磷酸化作用均是通过同一的电子传递系统,在此系统中仅有一个磷酸化部位,除非另有一个部位是极易破坏的。试验结果也对光合作用的量子需要量问题,供给可能的解释。在弱光下光合作用效率高,可能是由于部份ATP来自呼吸;而在强光下效率减低,则是呼吸所供给的ATP不足而必需依靠循环光合磷酸化所致。

(1) Acylase could be inhibited by various types of thiol reagents, the most sensitive one yet found being PCMB. In all the cases of inhibition, however, there was always some residual enzyme activity left. The inhibition by PCMB could be removed completely on the addition of thioglycolic acid. The extent of reactivation was found to depend on the concentration of the thioglycolic acid added. When the amount of the later exceeded 150 times molar concentration of PCMB, the enzyme activity at first rose unexpectedly...

(1) Acylase could be inhibited by various types of thiol reagents, the most sensitive one yet found being PCMB. In all the cases of inhibition, however, there was always some residual enzyme activity left. The inhibition by PCMB could be removed completely on the addition of thioglycolic acid. The extent of reactivation was found to depend on the concentration of the thioglycolic acid added. When the amount of the later exceeded 150 times molar concentration of PCMB, the enzyme activity at first rose unexpectedly to a level some 20% higher than that of the original and then fell again when the concentration was further increased.

(1)酰化酶能被各种巯基試剂所抑制,其中以PCMB的抑制最为明显,在所有的抑制情况下,都保留有一定的剩余酶活力。巯基乙酸能完全解除PCMB的抑制,恢复程度随所加的浓度而定,当巯基乙酸过量子抑制剂150倍时,酶活力反而高于原始活力20%,若浓度再高,酶活力又重新下降。(2)酰化酶經光氧化后活力就迅速丧失,但加对色氨酸殘基专一的試剂N-溴代琥珀酰亚胺并不影响酶的活力。溴代乙酸在較高浓度下亦能抑制酶的活力,抑制程度在作用pH为5左右时較为明显。(3)pH不影响酰化酶与底物結合的米氏常数K_M,而影响最大反应速度V。从pH对V影响的作图中求出活性基团的pK值为5.9和8.6,分別相当于酶蛋白中組氨酸和半胱氨酸的解离常数。(4)从实驗結果中推測,組氨酸和半胱氨酸是酰化酶的必需基团,它們可能与酶中金属离子以配位价的形式結合而共同构成一活性中心,在酶催化反应吋底物先通过金属离子与酶相結合,然后再进一步被催化。

~~

本文用量子化学方法研究蛋白质分子格合物的电子能谱及电子转移和氧化还原反应的关系。本文的结果表明:当蛋白质分子和辅酶或其它有机分子形成电荷迁移络合物时,在蛋白质分子导带下面将出现一系列定域化的电子-空穴束缚态能级。络合物受激发时,首先由基态跃迁到束缚态最低能级,出现电荷迁移吸收光谱。再激发时,才能由束缚态最低能级跃迁到其它束缚态能级或导带,从而出现非定域化的电子和产生电子顺磁共振信号。极性介质的影响和化学反应有助于电子转移。而络合物中的电子转移又会导致电子施主分子被氧化,电子受主分子被还原。通过对辅酶等分子的电离能和电子亲合势的计算,说明辅酶和蛋白质分子可能以电荷迁移络合物的形式存在。一些半定量的计算和定性的结论能初步解释氧化还原酶在光激发和酶促反应中所产生的电荷迁移吸收光谱及电子顺磁其振信号的实验事实。

 
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