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  volcanological research
Report on the volcanic activity and volcanological research in indonesia during the period 1936-1948
      
Advances in remote sensing technology in the past decade have also translated into significant advances in volcanological research.
      


Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of...

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of classification.Thus the detailed classification which the old methods fail to give out, is perfectlypossible with the new method. (2) The ultimate composition of coal on combustible basis, like C~2, 0~2, H~2,N~2 and the analytical moisture, W~a and their variation with the volatile matteron combustible basis and with each other is graphically investigated and it isfound that their variation with each other proceeded with distinct regularitywith the exception of sulphur and ash, so that their composition percentage canbe approximatety estimated with rough accuracy through these graphs and theclose check of analytical results of ultimate composition can be carried outthrough the use of these graphs. (3) a general relationship in the proximate and ultimate composition of the pure coal substance on combustible basis for typical Chinese coals can bederived with the following straight line formula for the average percentage of car-ben on combustible basis in terms of the volatile matter on combustible basisin the region of bituminous coal: C~2=93.3-(V~2/4.55) during (8

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计...

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃煤所需理论空气量,理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量均可用近似公式推算。

Various kinds of acid igneous rocks are found around the Kushan, to theeast of Foochow, Fukien. One earlier variety of the granites, provisionally termedas Kushan Granite, is coarser-grained, often flesh-colored, and biotite-bearing,similar in character to the most frequently seen and widely distributed graniteof whole Fukien; the other, the Kueichi Granite, often intruding into the firstnamed, is colored by different shades of grey, mostly, fine-grained, and mia-rolitie, containing minor amount of hornblende...

Various kinds of acid igneous rocks are found around the Kushan, to theeast of Foochow, Fukien. One earlier variety of the granites, provisionally termedas Kushan Granite, is coarser-grained, often flesh-colored, and biotite-bearing,similar in character to the most frequently seen and widely distributed graniteof whole Fukien; the other, the Kueichi Granite, often intruding into the firstnamed, is colored by different shades of grey, mostly, fine-grained, and mia-rolitie, containing minor amount of hornblende instead of biotite, yet sometimesvarying its texture to felsitic, porphyritic, or even to micro-graphic. In thecourse of weathering, the soils thus formed from these two granites, as well astheir corresponding surface vegetations are also evidently dissimilar. That the Kueichi granite was really intruding into the Kushan is evidencedby its ramifying apophyses in the latter, its broad marginal phase, its miaro- litie cavities elongated and lined parallel to the intrusive contact and the"sericitization front", so to show a convex curvature facing the Kushan Graniteside along their mutual contact. The prevalent strike of the contact of the granites conicides with thefracture and joint systems of the Kushan Granite, one set of which is N65°E,being also parallel to one of the major vertical joints of the Kueichi. This isprobably due to the prolonged fracturing during the formation of Pacificfolding zones of the Chekiang and Fukien coast, rendering the KueichiGranite intruding along the said fracture system yet itself subjected to the samemechanical stress. Rocks correlated to these two granites are found elsewhere in Fukien. Theymay also be comparable to the two granites of Sihwashan, S. Kiangsi, foundby C. S. Mo and his colleagues. The repeated intrusions of the Post-Jurassicgranites may allow to consider the possibility of repeated formations of theirgenetically related ores. The lead-zinc deposits of Yuntai and Lungyai areprobably related to the igneous activity of the Kueichi Granite.

经初步瞭解,福建鼓山分布着两种后侏罗纪花岗岩。这从岩石地面分布上的接触情况与显微镜下观察的岩石中组成成分的接触情况两方面得到证实的。从二者产生状态看来,彼此生成时间甚为接近,而同属於太平洋运动产物,分属早晚期活动。再根据前人各种地质文件,推论出福建各地普遍存在着相当於这两种侵入的花岗岩类岩石。因此,联系到福建后侏罗纪金属矿成矿作用的多次性可能。这在江西西华山已有发现。此后从多次性来研究后侏罗纪的炎成矿床的成矿作用,成为必要了。

In recent years, the geotectonic problem of China engages the attentionof many Chinese and Soviet geologists, but different opinions are confessed by different authors. After studying the structural characters of the fundamentalfloor and its later geological development, theauthor of this paper agrees withthe statement of the Soviet geologist, B. M. Синицын. In 1952 he pointed outthat the Chinese platform in eastern China, may bs divided into: (1) theSine-Korean platform; and (2) the Southern-Chinese platform,...

In recent years, the geotectonic problem of China engages the attentionof many Chinese and Soviet geologists, but different opinions are confessed by different authors. After studying the structural characters of the fundamentalfloor and its later geological development, theauthor of this paper agrees withthe statement of the Soviet geologist, B. M. Синицын. In 1952 he pointed outthat the Chinese platform in eastern China, may bs divided into: (1) theSine-Korean platform; and (2) the Southern-Chinese platform, consolidatedas a result of the Luliang movement. This Chinese platform especially in its southern part shows a very peculiarphenomenon as it is called "Activization" of the platform. During Sinian andPaleozoic, its sediments belonged to the pronounced epi-continental type, duringthe mesozoic the south-eastern part of the Southern-Chinese platform wasneither a stable shelf nor a geosyncline, but an intermediate type between them.Its characters were really not geosynclinal, but sometimes showed geosynclinalaffinities, as for instances, the immense granitic intrusions, the eruptions oflavas, and the rather strongly folded geosynclinal structures. These imply thelimited mobility or the incomplete consolidation of the underground. Accor-dingly, referred to the structural type of this region, P. Misch called it"Sinotype". Furthermore, in the Southern-Chinese platform, two strong "Activizingunits" are recognized as follows: 1) The Hunan-Kwangsi activizing andsubsiding region; 2) The Cathaysian activizing oldland. The "Activization"of these regions lasted for a long geological time. It began in Sinian, throughCaledonian, Variscian, Indo-Sinian, Yenshanian and even Himalayan. BeforeMesozoic, the Caledonian was the most intensive and widely distributed one.But as pointed out by A. H. Мазарович, the Caledonian of the Southern-Chineseplatform was merely a fold-belt within the platform. According to its geotectonic history, its character of sedimentation, itsregional metamorphism, its igneous activity and its geotectonic systems, suchas "Kwangsi ∈ system", "North-Kwangtung ∈ system", "Meso and Neo-Cathaysiansystem", and the "Nanling eastwest tectonic zone", it is the author's opinionthat the "Imtermediate type (Sinotype)" of the Southern-Chinese platform wasdeveloped gradually through a long "Activizing process". This "Sinotype" is anintermediate type between the stable shelf and the geosynclinal region.

作者同意B.M.西尼村的意见,认为中国地台是中国东部的一个大的构造单位,它是在吕梁运动后造成的。中国地台由两个主要部分构成,它的北部称中朝地台,南部称华南地台。中国地台有一很重要的特征,就是一个“活化”的地台。华南地台的东南部“活化”尤其强烈而显著,在中生代的太平洋运动时,差不多具有类似地槽的特征。但是它的“活化”是有悠久历史的,即开始於震旦纪,所以加里东运动给与很大的影响,但加里东运动只是地台内部的褶皱。地台“活化”直到中生代太平洋运动才得到高度发展,产生巨大的火成活动以及“中国式”的构造型式。新生代时地台还有中等强度的运动和火成活动。自第四纪冰期之后,地台仍在较弱的升降运动中。华南地台无论从沉积岩相、区域变质及火成活动,或从山字型、华夏式及南岭东西褶皱的构造体系等构造型式发育史的研究,都可以看到它的“活化”过程,在这过程里发育了“过渡类型”的构造形态,这都是不同放地槽或地台的构造形态的。本文是作为学习心得性质的初步尝试,文中不成熟和谬误之处尚多,希望得到大家的指正。如果能在集体的讨论和研究之下将我国大地构造研究清楚的话,这是作者所衷心期望的。

 
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