To define the design loads for actively controlled aircraft, three approaches are presented, i.e. Probabilistic Determination of Limit Load, Operational Flight Parameter Approach and Flight Parameter Envelope Approach with its application in EF 2000 design.
A design is performed for the hyperbolic cooling tower (Grand Gulf cooling tower) to check the design strength under a consistent design load; therefore, to verify the adequacy of the design algorithm developed.
Based on these concepts, the following procedure for establishing case depth is suggested: 1) From design load and gear geometry data, compute the applied shear stress gradient at the most severe location along the path of contact.
A number of panels were then removed one by one and the hull was retested to the design load after each panel had been removed.
After nine panels had been removed, from all the different areas of the hull, it could still carry the design load, although with considerable nonreversible deformations of the hull girder.
The hull was eventually loaded to final failure, which occurred at 25% above the design load.
An elastic-plastic finite element analysis algorithm for plane frames has been incorporated in the model to evaluate the ultimate strength of the overall frame, and different effects of design loads.
Extensive study on the design loads used for strength assessment of tanker and bulk carrier structures
Among the wide-ranging basic research, this article summarizes the results of extensive work on the design loads used for strength assessments of tanker and bulk carrier structures.
The main aim of the research was to develop practical estimation methods of design loads with rational technical backgrounds relating to the actual loads acting on the primary structural members of tankers and bulk carriers.
We also briefly introduced some practical estimation methods for the design loads, such as ship motions, accelerations, hull-girder bending moments, and hydrodynamic pressures that are induced under design regular waves.