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  altitudinal
    Altitudinal Gradient Pattern of the Distribution of Viola Plants in Nanling Nature Reserve, Guangdong
    广东南岭自然保护区堇菜属植物垂直分布格局的研究
短句来源
    Altitudinal Patterns of Plant Diversity of China Mountains
    中国山地植物多样性的垂直变化格局
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    Distribution and geographical analysis of altitudinal belts in the Altun-Qilian Mountains
    阿尔金山-祁连山山地植被垂直带谱分布及地学分析
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    To explore the altitudinal differentiation of flora of Mt. Gongga and its relationship with those of surrounding areas, we investigated eight vertical vegetation zones on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, and analyzed the altitudinal distribution, the floristic components at the level of family, genus and species, and the contrast between different vegetation zones.
    为了探讨贡嘎山植物区系的垂直分化特征及其与周边地区植物区系的联系 ,结合样带法与样方法 ,对贡嘎山东坡垂直植被带进行了调查 ,统计得出各垂直植被带的科、属的物种数量 ,分析了科、属、种级区系成分的构成及其沿海拔梯度的分布格局 ,并对各垂直植被带区系的相似性进行了聚类分析。
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    THE ALTITUDINAL ZONATION OF FOREST VEGETATION ON MOUNTAIN WAI-ZI, EASTERN JIANGSI
    江西怀玉山主峰森林植被垂直带谱
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    Study on Bacteroides Fragilis and Relative Strains by SDS-PAGE Technique
    SDS—PAGE垂直板电泳技术鉴定脆弱类杆菌及相关菌株的探讨
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    A Discussion on the Way of Zonation of Vegetation on the Shade Slope of Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing
    北京百花山大阴坡植被垂直分带方法的探讨
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    50 soil samples(10×10×10 cm3/sample) were collected from different depth in areas beside 1m,6m and 11m of both urban and rural road. Oribatid mites in each sample were isolation and identified.
    于市区主干道、乡村道路两侧外1m、6m、11m各设一采样点,分别垂直分层采集50份每份为10×10×10 cm3的土壤.
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    SCVTS drained into anterior SSS, along or against the flow direction, or even at a right angle, with the average number of 5.2, and the diameter (1.99±0.86) mm.
    前段上矢状窦旁大脑上静脉平均为5.2支,直径为(1.99±0.86)mm,末段可顺行、垂直和逆行注入上矢状窦;
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    Results:The average length of PCI was about 110.57 mm, the width 24.24 mm, the height between the greater sciatic notch(GSN) and arcuate line 14.54 mm and that of A line section to GSN 31.46mm.
    结果:髂骨后柱的平均长度为110.57mm,宽度24.24mm; 高度有两个,标准高度是坐骨大切迹顶弧到弓状线的垂直高度14.54mm,安全高度是坐骨大切迹顶弧到A线截面的距离31.46mm。
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  altitudinal
At different altitudinal ranges, the effects of slope aspect and slope degree on the distribution of landscape elements vary markedly in orientation and intensity.
      
Comparison of fractal characteristics of species richness patterns among different plant taxonomic groups along an altitudinal g
      
Altitudinal patterns of the flora of seed plants of Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, south China
      
Altitudinal gradient incorporates multiple resource gradients, which vary continuously in different fashions.
      
The structural characteristics of the flora and the altitudinal distribution pattern of its floristic components were analyzed.
      
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The initial surface negative potential elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex,to be subsequently called for the sake of briefness the direct response,and the first surface negative wave in the cortical response to the antidromic stimulation of the pyrami- dal tract,to be briefly called the antidromic response,are now generally regarded as both representing the activity of the apical dendrites of the pyramidal neurons.We had tested in the rabbit for possible interactions between the...

The initial surface negative potential elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex,to be subsequently called for the sake of briefness the direct response,and the first surface negative wave in the cortical response to the antidromic stimulation of the pyrami- dal tract,to be briefly called the antidromic response,are now generally regarded as both representing the activity of the apical dendrites of the pyramidal neurons.We had tested in the rabbit for possible interactions between the direct response and the antidromic response when they were made to overlap in time,but found none.Application of procaine to the cortical surface was found to affect the direct response earlier than the antidromic response.With unipolar microelectrode inserted from the surface downwards by small steps into the cortex,the direct response decreased from the very beginning,while the antidromic response at first showed an increase.All these suggest that the direct response and the antidromic response,even though both representing the activity of the apical dendrites, must nevertheless occupy different locations on this structure.It appears that the direct response set up in the terminal portion of the apical dendrites does not conduct towards the basal portion and that likewise the antidromic response reflecting the invasion of impulse to the basal portion, does not travel upwards to the terminal portion. The direct response may be led off from the immediate neighborhood of the stimulating electrodes or several,say 6 mm away.For convenience of description,we called the former“near”response and the later“far” response.We had found that the“near”and“far”responses showed parallel changes under the influences of various drugs.The“far”response could be shown to be a pure post-synaptic response.As the“near”res- ponse appeared to possess the same pharmacological properties as the “far”response,it was inferred to be also a pure post-synaptic response. This tends to support the idea that the terminal portion of the apical dendrites is probably electrically inexcitable.

本文用大脑皮层表面的直接刺激和锥体束逆行刺激,在锥体神经原顶端树状突唤起电反应。各种试验设计以进一步了解顶端树状突末端的传导和兴奋特性为中心目的,主要结果如下:(一)直接刺激在大脑皮层引起的第一个表面负电位和锥体束逆行冲动在大脑皮层引起的第一个表面负电位虽都代表顶端树状突的活动,但可以同时出现而不互相干扰。(二)在局部施加普鲁卡因溶液后,以及用微电极在皮层不同深度作单极引出时,这两个负电位不呈现平行的变化。(三)用一对尖端上下距离为0.3—0.7毫米的钢丝微电极垂直地插入皮层记录,看出直接刺激皮层表面引起的第一个表面负电位是局限于皮层近表面层,而锥体束刺激所引起的第一个表面负电位并不到达皮层近表面层。(四)我们同时在大脑皮层表面在刺激电极近旁和在距离刺激电极6毫米左右两处记录直接刺激所引起的表面负电位,发现在各种药剂影响下两处的反应都呈平行的变化。以上一、二、三各项结果表明顶端树状突末端部分缺乏传导能力。从第四项结果,因为在离刺激电极较远处得到的反应是纯粹的突触后反应,而在远近两处得到的反应却具有相同的药理学上的特性,可以推断在刺激电极近旁的反应大概亦是纯粹的突触后反应,而不是直接被电流唤起的反应...

本文用大脑皮层表面的直接刺激和锥体束逆行刺激,在锥体神经原顶端树状突唤起电反应。各种试验设计以进一步了解顶端树状突末端的传导和兴奋特性为中心目的,主要结果如下:(一)直接刺激在大脑皮层引起的第一个表面负电位和锥体束逆行冲动在大脑皮层引起的第一个表面负电位虽都代表顶端树状突的活动,但可以同时出现而不互相干扰。(二)在局部施加普鲁卡因溶液后,以及用微电极在皮层不同深度作单极引出时,这两个负电位不呈现平行的变化。(三)用一对尖端上下距离为0.3—0.7毫米的钢丝微电极垂直地插入皮层记录,看出直接刺激皮层表面引起的第一个表面负电位是局限于皮层近表面层,而锥体束刺激所引起的第一个表面负电位并不到达皮层近表面层。(四)我们同时在大脑皮层表面在刺激电极近旁和在距离刺激电极6毫米左右两处记录直接刺激所引起的表面负电位,发现在各种药剂影响下两处的反应都呈平行的变化。以上一、二、三各项结果表明顶端树状突末端部分缺乏传导能力。从第四项结果,因为在离刺激电极较远处得到的反应是纯粹的突触后反应,而在远近两处得到的反应却具有相同的药理学上的特性,可以推断在刺激电极近旁的反应大概亦是纯粹的突触后反应,而不是直接被电流唤起的反应,暗示顶端树状突末端部分是缺乏电兴奋性的。

The city of Lanehow lies in the central part of China in latitude approximate 36°03′north, longitude 103°57'east, at elevation 1,508.53 M. Kowlanshan, the area surveyed, being one of the many loess plateau hills surrounding Lanchow, situates on the southeastern suburb of the city. Physiographically, the area is a part of the dissected loess plateau with an altitude of 1,508-2100 M. Owing to the influences of the geographical condition and high elevation, the climate of this area is of continental climatic type....

The city of Lanehow lies in the central part of China in latitude approximate 36°03′north, longitude 103°57'east, at elevation 1,508.53 M. Kowlanshan, the area surveyed, being one of the many loess plateau hills surrounding Lanchow, situates on the southeastern suburb of the city. Physiographically, the area is a part of the dissected loess plateau with an altitude of 1,508-2100 M. Owing to the influences of the geographical condition and high elevation, the climate of this area is of continental climatic type. The mean annual precipitation is 338.6mm. with 61.1% of it falling in June, July and August, annual mean temperature, 6.9℃., relative humidity, 58%, annual total evaporation, 3,571mm. and annual mean wind velocity 5.8m/sec. The upper portion of the hill is entirely covered with a thick layer of loess and underneath lies the red earth of the tertiary period. As a result of that, soils in the area surveyed, which has been developed from the loess, is high in calcium content. It belongs to the chestnut soil type with a PH value between 7.6 and 8.1. The vegetation of this area shows the following ecological characteristics: 1) The specific composition of the plant is rather scanty with about. 124 speeies belonging to 93 genera and 41 families; 2) The vegetation bears a simple physiognomy. No natural growth arbor been found in the whole area during the period of investigation, though a few species of cultivated trees are found and the vegetation is mainly composed of semi-frutexes and herbages; 3) Most of the essential species distributing here express distinct xeromorphic structures and many of them are typical components of the vegetation of the steppe and semi-dessect, such as Caragana spp., Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Artemisia spp., Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb., Stipa spp. Achnatherum splendens Ohwi. and so on. Four plant associations are found in this area. Three of them distribute on the Dorthern slope and one on the southern slope of the hill. They are described as follow: Ⅰ. Chenupodium album+Artemisia annua+Elymus dasystachys Association. The distribution of this association is limited to the erosion valleys situating on the piedmont belt of the northern slope at an elevation between 1, 510 and 1, 560 M., where the edaphic condition is marked by high soil moisture content. The climatic features are of low light intencity with short duration of daily sunshine, high relative humidity and low wind velocity. Three hygrophilous and shade-loving species are the main constituents of this association. They are chenopodium album L., Artemisia annua L., and Elymus dasystachys Trin. Other herbaceous plants are Chenopodium glaucum L.. Sonchus aler- aceus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Polygonum amphibium L., P. aviculare L. etc. A few shrubs are present in the association. They are Lycium chinensis Mill., Lonicera heteroloba Batal. and Lonicera ferdinandi Fr. Ⅱ. Artemisia pectinata Association. The Artemisia pectinata Association occurs on the piedmont belt of the northern slope at an elevation varying from 1510 to 1580 M. It occupies the open slope with gradients under 15°. The climatic conditions, in speaking of the northern slope, are rather high in temperature, strong light intencity, low relative humidity and low wind velocity. The projective total cover-degree is about 50% and Artemisia pectinata Pall. appears to be the dominant species in the association. Besides, there are species of thermophilous and heliophilous plants such as Salsola kali L., S. arachnoides‘Moq’. Kung, Cymbaria mongolica Maxim., Artemisia capillaris Thumb., Aster altaicus willd., chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb., which are frequently scattered among the dominant plants. Plants growing in this association, are all below 10 cm. in height. They give an appearence of open association. Ⅲ. Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum+Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba—Polytrichum sp. Association. This association, being the largest one in the surveyed area, appears on the northern slope, where it occupies the space ranging from altitude 1,580M. to the top of the hill,2,100M, above the sea level. Soil is of chestnut soil type with a PH value of 8. 0—8. 1.The soil moisture content varies between 6.0 and 7.4%(layer above 60 cm.). In vertical structure, the association consists of two strata. They are described below: Stratum Ⅰ: This stratum includes all shrubs, semi-frutexes and herbages which are taller than 10 cm. in height. Among the plants found in this stratum, chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb. and Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba Ledeb. are dominant species and Stipa Bungeana Trin. is the subdominant one. Other species one may frequently meet with are Allium subangulatum Rag., Saussurea nigrescens Maxim., Peganumharmala L., Astragalus dahuricus Dc., Potentilla multifida L., Linum perenne L., Car-agana frutex K. Koch. etc. They spread widely in almost all over the association. Stratum Ⅱ: This stratum is composed of those species less than 10 cm. in height, forming the ground flora of the association. Polytrichum sp. and Lichens are the essential plants in the stratum. One may occasionlly find species of Plantago Lessingii and Gentiana squarrosa Ledeb. growing among those main constituents. The underground stratification of the association has also been studied during the time of surveying. IV. Stipa Bungeana+Aster altaicus+Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Association. This association distributes on the entire southern slope except the portions tilled for agriculture purposes. The striking local ecological conditions of this association are strong light intensity with long duration of daily sunshine, high temperature, low relative humidity and extremely low in soil moisture content which ranges between 2. 7 and 4. 0% (the layer above 60cm.). On account of the severe destruction of natural vegetation by man and cattle in the past years, the degree of soil erosion is serious throughout the slope where the association locates. The PH value of the soils is 7.4-76. The polydominant plants in this association are Stipa Bungeana Trin., Aster altaicus Willd. and Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb. They are quite adaptable to the drought condition of the environment and distribute widely in the association. Besides, other xerophilous or drought resistant plants are frequently met, such as Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Linum perenne L., Astranalus dahuricus Dc., Peganum harmala L., Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba Ledeb., Artemisia capillaris Thumb., Incarvillea Iutea Bur.&Franch., Kochia scoparia Schred. etc. They dispersely grow in the association. In addition to the frequent species mentioned above, Salsola ruthenica Iljin. and S. arachnoides‘Moq’. Kung form seperately micro-associations lying scatterly on the slope. No ground flora stratum may be found and the association shows no above ground stratification. The projective total cover-degree of this association is only about 25-30%. Owing to the difference in the aspects of the northern and sourthern slopes, the climatic and edaphic conditions vary remarkable. Therefore, the vegetation of the surveyed area shows distinctions in distribution, floristic composition, physiognomy, structure, condition in growth and development of plants in the association of different slopes. Taking the floristic composition for example, the following species are entirely absent in the association of the northern slope, yet they are main components on the southern one: Pappophorum brachystachyum Taub. et Spach, Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br., Caragana spinosa Dc., Stellera chamaejasme L., Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Nitraria schoberi L., Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb. Differences in elevation also induce striking changes in climatic and edaphic con-ditions especially in aspects of air temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture content. All these gives great influence to the alterations either in quantity or in quality of each species distributing along the northern slope of the area. Following the seasonal change, the physiognomy of the associations expresses sucession of seasonal aspect. Vernal, aestival and autumnal aspects have been observed and recorded.

兰州位于我国的中心,约占北纬36度03分,东经103度57分,拔海1508.53米。皋兰山是兰州四周环山中的最高峰,位居兰州市东南郊。在地形上,皋兰山属于分割黄土高原山岭的一部分,拔海高度约为2100米。由于地理位置及海拔的影响,兰州的气候属大陆性气候类型。年平均温度为6.9℃,年平均雨量为338.6毫米,而61.61%集中在6、7、8、三个月,全年各月平均相对湿度为58%,年蒸发量则达3,571毫米,风力为5.8米/秒。皋兰山山岭的顶部均为厚层的黄土所掩盖,其下则为第三纪红土层。因此,调查区的土壤,全由黄土母质发育而来,含多量钙质,属栗钙土类,PH值为7.6—8.1。调查区的植被,有如下的生志特点:(1)植物种属比较贫乏:全区植物只有41科,93属,124种;(2)群落外貌单纯:调查区内缺乏自然生长的乔木,植被主要由半灌木与草本植物所构成,属干燥草原区的灌木草本群落型;(3)植物具明显旱生形态:群落主要成分,很多是干燥草原区的代表种属,如锦鸡儿属、蒿属、菊属的小黄菊(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb.)、羽茅属、芨芨草等。它们都具有各种适应干旱环境的形态特征。调查区植物...

兰州位于我国的中心,约占北纬36度03分,东经103度57分,拔海1508.53米。皋兰山是兰州四周环山中的最高峰,位居兰州市东南郊。在地形上,皋兰山属于分割黄土高原山岭的一部分,拔海高度约为2100米。由于地理位置及海拔的影响,兰州的气候属大陆性气候类型。年平均温度为6.9℃,年平均雨量为338.6毫米,而61.61%集中在6、7、8、三个月,全年各月平均相对湿度为58%,年蒸发量则达3,571毫米,风力为5.8米/秒。皋兰山山岭的顶部均为厚层的黄土所掩盖,其下则为第三纪红土层。因此,调查区的土壤,全由黄土母质发育而来,含多量钙质,属栗钙土类,PH值为7.6—8.1。调查区的植被,有如下的生志特点:(1)植物种属比较贫乏:全区植物只有41科,93属,124种;(2)群落外貌单纯:调查区内缺乏自然生长的乔木,植被主要由半灌木与草本植物所构成,属干燥草原区的灌木草本群落型;(3)植物具明显旱生形态:群落主要成分,很多是干燥草原区的代表种属,如锦鸡儿属、蒿属、菊属的小黄菊(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb.)、羽茅属、芨芨草等。它们都具有各种适应干旱环境的形态特征。调查区植物群落,可区分为下列的四个群丛: 1.白药+黄花蒿+厚穗滨草群丛(Chenopodium album+Artemisia annus+Elymus dasystachys Association) 本群丛分布于皋兰山山麓的侵蚀沟谷内,约占海拔1510至1560米的地段。所在地气候与土壤特点是光线弱、日照时间短、风力小、大气相对湿度大与土壤潮湿。群丛优势种有白藜、黄花蒿和厚穂滨草三种喜湿耐阴植物。此外,伴生有灰绿藜、苦苣菜、苍耳、两栖蓼、扁蓄等草本植物。灌木则可见枸杞(Lycuim chinensis Mill)、紫金银花(Lonicera heteroloba Batal.)、裴氏金银花(L.ferdinandi.Fr.)三种。 2.篦叶蒿群丛(Artemisia pectinata Association) 这一群丛占据皋兰山北坡山麓海拔1510—1580米,坡度在15°以下的开旷地段。其环境条件,在北坡来说,主要表现于阳光充沛,温度高,大气相对湿度低与土壤干燥。群丛总夏盖度约为50%,而以篦叶蒿最占优势。常见植物有钾猪毛菜、灰蓬(Salsola arachnoides‘moq’Kung)、蒙古芯芭(Cymbaria mongolica Maxim.)、茵陈蒿、阿尔泰紫菀、小黄菊等喜光喜温种类。 3.小黄菊+供蒿-藓群丛(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum+Artemisia sacrorum var latiloba-Polytrichum sp. Association) 本群丛包括皋兰山北坡自海拔1580米以上一直至山顶(海拔2100米)的全部地段,为调查区内分布面积最广的群丛。其生态环境是阳光弱、日照时间短、蒸发量小、气温低;土镶为栗钙土,PH值在8.0—8.1左右,土壤风干含水量为5.2—5.6%。群丛在垂直结构上,可分为两层:第一层包括高度在10厘米以上的灌木、半灌木与草本植物,而以小黄菊和供蒿最占优势。本氏羽茅则为本属中的亚优势种。常见植物尚有野葱、青木香(Saussurea nigrescens Maxim.)、骆驼蓬、达乌里紫云英,多裂委陵菜、宿根亚麻、木锦鸡儿(Caragana frutex K. Koch.)等。第二层为地被层,主要由藓类和地衣所组成。此外,偶尔出现细叶车前(Plantago Lessingii)与鳞叶龙胆(Gentiana squarrosa Ledeb.)铺地生长。群丛总复盖度约为67%。 4.本氏羽茅+阿尔泰紫菀+小黄菊群丛(Stipa Bungeana+Aster altaicus+Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Association) 这一群丛占皋兰山南坡除农田以外的全部地区。其气候与土壤条件,可归纳为下:日晒强烈、日照时间长、气温高;人为对自然植被破坏强烈,表土冲刷现象异常严重。土壤水分含量甚低,仅占风干重的1.88—3.41%,pH值为7.4—7.6。本氏羽茅、阿尔泰紫菀与小黄菊为群丛中的主要种类。它们对于干旱的环境均具有强大的适应力。其他常见植物有红砂、宿根亚麻、达乌里紫云英、骆驼蓬、供蒿、茵陈蒿、黄角蒿(Incarvillea lutea Bur.&Franch.)地肤等抗旱或耐旱种类。苏联猪毛菜(Salsola rutheniea Iljin)和灰蓬,常各成单纯小群丛,出现于山坡间。本群丛中缺地被层,无地上成层现象。群丛总复盖度仅为25—30%。由于南北坡取向不同所引起气候与土壤因子的变化,调查区植物群落,在分布、结构、外貌、种类成分及生长发育状况上,也随着发生很大的差异。海拔高度的改变,对气温、相对湿度,土温及土壤水分状况的影晌,也明显地反映在群落中各个种间的数量比例关系上。随着季节的更换,群落中的种类成分,表现出比较显著的季相演替关系。作者等曾作北坡群丛春、夏和秋三季季相的观察与纪录。

Ⅰ. Seasonal distribution:1. The Copepoda of Amoy Harbor attains its secondary maximum in both number of species and quantity in spring and great maximum in autumn. In accordance with the pattern of seasonal distribution, the species of Copepoda may be divided into two types: (1)Species with marked seasonal variation. The majority of species mentioned in this paper belong to this type and they are mostly of warm-water species. (2)Species without marked seasonal variation. They are relatively fewer in number of...

Ⅰ. Seasonal distribution:1. The Copepoda of Amoy Harbor attains its secondary maximum in both number of species and quantity in spring and great maximum in autumn. In accordance with the pattern of seasonal distribution, the species of Copepoda may be divided into two types: (1)Species with marked seasonal variation. The majority of species mentioned in this paper belong to this type and they are mostly of warm-water species. (2)Species without marked seasonal variation. They are relatively fewer in number of species and occur throughout the year.2. The warm-water species commence to appear in July and markedly increase in number from September to October. Judging from their seasonal occurrence, the influence of Korosio current appears to be stronger in Amoy waters during autumn.Ⅱ. Diurnal vertical migration:1. The extent of diurnal vertical migration appears to vary with species which may be separated into two groups: (1)Species with marked diurnal vertical migration. The time of their ascent and descent is by ao means the same. They have, however, one feature in common, i. e. from 08. 00-16.00 they disappear entirely or almost entirely from the surface layer and are very abundant in the bottom layer. (2)Species without marked diurnal vertical migration. In accordance with their vertical distribution, they may, further, be separated into two groups: (a) Those inhabiting mainly the surface layer. (b)Thosc inhabiting both surface aud bottom layers.2. There is no sexual difference in the diurnal vertical migration, But the young and the adult exhibit different behavior in this respect. This appears to vary with species.3. The phenomenon of, midnight sinking and dawn rise' is by no means universal among the Copepoda.

厦门内港桡足类种类与数量春季开始增加,形成全年次高峯,秋季达到全年最高峯,种类的季节变化有二种类型:(1)季节变化显著的,暖水性或暖流种类,(2)季节变化不很显著的,少数四季常见的种类,根据种类的季节变化看来,厦门内港在9—10月间受黑潮暖流的影响较大。 根据昼夜垂直移动的幅度,厦门内港桡足类可分为二大类型:(1)有显著昼夜直垂移动的种类,(2)没有显著昼夜垂直移动的种类,但幼体与成体的昼夜垂直移动则并不完全一致,这随种类而巽,“午夜下降,黎明上升”的现象在桡足类中并不普遍。

 
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