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  secondary metabolites
Belyakov, Marine Microorganisms and Their Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites,
      
Analysis of Secondary Metabolites of Microscopic Fungi of the Genus Penicillium by Chromatographic Techniques
      
Occurrence of Indole Alkaloids among Secondary Metabolites of Soil Aspergillus Spp.
      
Secondary metabolites of three strains of Penicillium aurantiogriseumisolated from permafrost sediments were identified.
      
It was demonstrated that the fungus Penicillium expansum 2-7, a resident strain of the orbital complex Mir, which became dominant at the end of a long-term space flight, formed biologically active secondary metabolites (antibiotics).
      
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The ability of 47 isolates of Fusarium graminearum from different provinces of China to produce mycotoxins both in liquid cultures (MOSS, MYRO and GYEP) and on rice was assessed. The toxins produced were assessed by analyzing the metabolites by GC, HPLC and GC/MS. Twenty five metabolites produced included zearalenone, butenolide and various trichothecenes. All Fusarium graminearum strains tested had a chemotype I (deoxynivalenol). Most of Chinese strains of F. graminearum from warmer regions were chemotype IA...

The ability of 47 isolates of Fusarium graminearum from different provinces of China to produce mycotoxins both in liquid cultures (MOSS, MYRO and GYEP) and on rice was assessed. The toxins produced were assessed by analyzing the metabolites by GC, HPLC and GC/MS. Twenty five metabolites produced included zearalenone, butenolide and various trichothecenes. All Fusarium graminearum strains tested had a chemotype I (deoxynivalenol). Most of Chinese strains of F. graminearum from warmer regions were chemotype IA (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl). The strains, which were collected from the slightly cooler provinces (Henan, Shaanxi, Heilong-jiang and mountain area of Fujian) had a chemotype 1B (deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl).

试验测定了分离自中国小麦赤霉病常发生地区病麦穗上的47个禾谷镰刀菌(Fusarium graminearum)菌株的产毒素能力。结果表明,它们可以产生25种包括单端孢霉烯族化合物(Trichothecenes)、倍半萜类化合物(Sesquiterpenes)、赤霉烯酮(Zearalenone)和丁烯羟酸内酯(Butenolide)等类的已知次生代谢物。这些菌株属于化学型I,其中,来自我国温暖麦区的菌株都属化学型IA(deoxynivalenol,3-acetyl),并在气候冷凉地区发现化学型IB(deoxynivalenol,15-acetyl)菌株。

The contents of nutriment and some secondary metabolites in fibrous roots of soybean seedlings were determined at 17 days after inoculation with race 4 of Heterodera glycines. The results showed as follows; The content of total sugar in infected roots of susceptible control, Ludou 1, was 46. 01% higher than that in healthy one, meanwhile the contents of total sugar were 24. 91% and 37. 77% lower in the roots of two resistant varieties, Huipizhihei-dou and Yuanboheidou, respectively. Compared to their corresponding...

The contents of nutriment and some secondary metabolites in fibrous roots of soybean seedlings were determined at 17 days after inoculation with race 4 of Heterodera glycines. The results showed as follows; The content of total sugar in infected roots of susceptible control, Ludou 1, was 46. 01% higher than that in healthy one, meanwhile the contents of total sugar were 24. 91% and 37. 77% lower in the roots of two resistant varieties, Huipizhihei-dou and Yuanboheidou, respectively. Compared to their corresponding healthy roots, the contents of fructose, maltotetrose increased 144. 30% and 62. 90% in infected roots of cultivar Ludou 1 respectively, whereas they decreased or increased to a smaller extent in the roots of resistant cultivars. After inoculation, the increasing percentages of the concentrations of total free amino acid as well as arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, leucine, valine in roots of cultivar Ludou 1 were higher than that in the roots of two resistant cultivars. The contents of cystine either in infected roots or in healthy roots of the two resistant cultivars were all zeros. In response to inoculation, the increases of the contents of total phenolics, chlorogenic acid and fer-ulic acid in the roots of resistant cultivars, Huipizhiheidou and Yuanboheidou, were one time to several times more than these in the roots of susceptible control, Ludou 1. At the same time, the contents of flanvonoid and lignin varied diversely between resistant cultivars and susceptible one, which increased in infected roots of resistant cultivars and decreased in infected roots of Ludou 1 after inoculation.

抗源品种灰皮支黑豆、元钵黑豆和高感品种鲁豆1号为供试大豆材料,大豆孢囊线虫4号生理小种卵和二龄幼虫为接种物。接种后17天,测定大豆根部的营养物质和次生代谢物含量。与不接种对照比,抗源品种灰皮支黑豆和元钵黑豆根部的总糖含量分别降低24.91%和37.77%,而感病对照鲁豆1号升高46.01%,果糖和麦芽四糖含量在感病对照根上增加幅度较大,分别为144.30%和62.90%,但在抗源品种根上或是具有较小幅度的增加,或是表现降低。接种与否,感病对照根上的游离氨基酸总量以及精氨酸、谷氨酸、丙氨酸、天门氨酸、亮氨酸和缬氨酸含量增加的百分数明显高于抗源品种。胱氨酸含量在两个抗源品种上始终为0。接种后,抗感品种根部的总酚含量、绿原酸含量和阿魏酸含量都增加,但抗源品种增加量比感病品种鲁豆1号高出一倍到数倍;类黄酮含量和木质素含量变化在抗感品种间正好相反:抗源品种含量增加,感病品种却为降低。

An antifeedant can be defined as a chemical that inhibits feeding but does not kill the insect directly;the insect often may remain on the treated plant material and possibly may die of starvation.A majority of plant families rely on secondary plant metabolites for protection from polyphagous insects.It is evident from various studies that as a result of coevolutionary presures,plants have developed increasing resistance to insect feeders.Most antifeedant secondary plant compounds fall into one of four categories:sesquiterpene...

An antifeedant can be defined as a chemical that inhibits feeding but does not kill the insect directly;the insect often may remain on the treated plant material and possibly may die of starvation.A majority of plant families rely on secondary plant metabolites for protection from polyphagous insects.It is evident from various studies that as a result of coevolutionary presures,plants have developed increasing resistance to insect feeders.Most antifeedant secondary plant compounds fall into one of four categories:sesquiterpene lactones,isoflavonoids,quassinoids,limonoids.Although on structure/bioactivity relationships nothing concrete has been established so far,they can shed some light on the molecular processes occurring at receptor membrane level of given in sect species and thus many potent antifeedants can either be isoalated or synthesized.Antifeedant compounds may be perceived by insect either by stimulation of specialized deterrent receptors or by distortion of the normal function of nurons which perceive phagostimulating in natural environment and thus less environmental contamination,they have a very important role in IPM.Further studies on their action mechanisms,their environmental impact,structure/activity relationships,synthesis of potent antifeedants and field tests are needed to develop new environmental friendly insecticides.

拒食剂可以定义为能抑制昆虫取食而不直接杀死它们的化合物。昆虫常继续留在经拒食剂处理的植物上并可能因饥饿而死。大部分植物依赖次生代谢物来防御植食性昆虫。各种研究表明协同进化的压力使植物越来越能抵抗昆虫的取食。大部分植物源拒食性次生性化合物可以分为倍半萜烯内酯类、异黄酮类、苦木素类和柠檬苦素类化合物4 大类。虽然到目前为止关于结构与生物活性间关系方面尚未建立确实的规律,但结构与生物活性间关系的研究可以为了解发生在某些昆虫的膜受体水平上的分子过程提供线索,因而可以指导分离或合成高效拒食剂。昆虫感知拒食剂化合物可以通过刺激特定昆虫的特化的拒斥感器或者干扰接收诱食刺激化合物的神经元的正常功能实现。因为植物拒食剂是天然化合物,能在自然环境中很容易地被分解,较少环境污染,因而在IPM 中具有重要的作用。为了开发出无公害新农药,需要进一步进行其作用机制、对环境的影响、结构与生物活性间关系、高效拒食剂的合成及田间试验等方面的研究。

 
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