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桥梁
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  in bridge
     The Testing and Theoretical Study of CFRP Cable Structures in Bridge
     碳纤维索结构(桥梁)试验研究和理论分析
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  “(桥梁”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Research on the Theory of Intelligent Civil (Bridge) Structure and Its Kernel Arithmetic
     智能土木(桥梁)结构理论及其核心算法研究
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     Vibration of railway vehicle is mainly forced vibration due to random track irregularity. When dynamic behavior of railway vehicle/track (bridge) system is analysed through computer simulation and/or roller rig and vibrostand experiment, it is very important how to describe the dynamic behavior of a vehicle excited spectra and transform them between time and frequency domain with out leaking of the spectral distribution character of stimulator.
     铁路车辆运行过程中的振动主要是因为轨道不平顺引起的强迫振动,在对车辆系统或车辆-线路(桥梁)耦合系统进行动力学分析和滚动振动台试验时,如何在时域和频域内描述车辆系统激励谱的特性,并在保持谱的频率、相位和幅值特征不丢失的情况下进行时域和频域间的转换具有非常重要的意义。
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     On the basis of comparision and analysis between the generation and development of Chinese and foreign road(bridge) tolling system, this paper gives the theoreticalframework for the road (bridge) tolling system and inquires preliminarily the toll roaddevelopment in China.
     本文在对中外公路(桥梁)通行收费制度的产生与发展对比分析的基础上,研究了公路(桥梁)通行收费制度的理论基础,探讨了中国收费道路的发展方向。
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  相似匹配句对
     BRIDGE ON THE HIGH SPEED RAILWAY
     高速铁路上的桥梁
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     The service life of reinforced concrete bridge
     钢筋混凝土桥梁的使用寿命
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  in bridge
Weathering steels, including those unpainted, have come to a wide use in some foreign countries in bridge structures.
      
A scheme of direct experimental observation of the internal conversion of vibrational quanta is suggested; this effect occurs during the electron tunneling in bridge contacts.
      
Unified expression for failure of reinforced concrete members in bridge
      
The reinforced concrete structure in bridge often failed under the combined forces of bending, axial load, shear and torsion caused by wind and earthquake.
      
Hydrogen brittleness of assembly welded joints in bridge structures made of 10KhSNDA and 15KhSNDA steels
      
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The problem of investigating the vibration properties of continuous girders on elastic piers frequently occurs in practical design work. An approximate method of attack is to replace the elastic pier by a spring support. This method simplifies greatly the analysis and is generally adopted in practice. In the first part of this paper, this approximate method is investigated in detail and complete solutions including the effect of initial conditions are given. The computations are made more systematic and simple...

The problem of investigating the vibration properties of continuous girders on elastic piers frequently occurs in practical design work. An approximate method of attack is to replace the elastic pier by a spring support. This method simplifies greatly the analysis and is generally adopted in practice. In the first part of this paper, this approximate method is investigated in detail and complete solutions including the effect of initial conditions are given. The computations are made more systematic and simple by the adoption of a system of constants defined as the dynamic shape constants and load constants of the structure. In the second part of this paper, the more accurate method of analysis is investigated. The exact frequency equations of the system are obtained by writing down the dynamic equations of the girders and the piers simultaneously and the boundary conditions are taken into consideration. It is shown that by taking only the fist one or two terms of the series expansions, the exact frequency equation reduces to the approximate one. It is concluded that the approximate method will give adequate solutions in the case when the piers are rigid and when only the lower frequencies of the natural mode need be considered. Particular solutions of structures under transverse vibrations are worked out and is found more involved than that given by the approximate method.

本文所謂架空結構是指搁置在較高的支墩上的連續梁結構,例如高架橋梁或水電站的架空輸水管道等。這類結構在承受震動荷載(例如地震)時,常會引起較大的變形和应力。如支墩較粗矮,則在計算較低的頻率時,其作用可近似的以一彈簧支座代替之,而忽略支墩本身的結構震動影響。這是一個常用的假定,可以使計算工作充分簡化。本文首先對這一情况作了詳盡討論,給出较完整的解答,包括起始條件影響在内,並提出用“載常數”及“形常數”的觀念來進行計算。然后本文給出考虑支墩的震動影響時的精確解答,分別就縱横方向的震動進行討論,並指出近似計算公式和精確公式间的關係,近似公式只能在支墩較剛固和計算较低階的頻率時才適用。文中列出了結構作横向諧和震動時的特別解答,可見其計算工作量將比近似法增加不少。

1. In this study which has been carried on since 1949,attempts were made toanalyse factors involved in the outbreaks of stripe rust of wheat in North Chinawith a view of giving some clues for forcasting.Five periods of the developmentof an epidemic of the stripe rust in this region are recognized:(1) the infectionand divelopment period of the rust on wheat seedlings in the autumn,(2) the over-wintering period,(3) the over-springing period,(4) the development period in thelate spring,and (5) the over-summering...

1. In this study which has been carried on since 1949,attempts were made toanalyse factors involved in the outbreaks of stripe rust of wheat in North Chinawith a view of giving some clues for forcasting.Five periods of the developmentof an epidemic of the stripe rust in this region are recognized:(1) the infectionand divelopment period of the rust on wheat seedlings in the autumn,(2) the over-wintering period,(3) the over-springing period,(4) the development period in thelate spring,and (5) the over-summering period.For each of the above stated peri-ods,the degrees of the stipe rust development are described and the main factorseffecting the development are analysed. 2. In the autumn,if field conditions were favorable for infection,the earlier ??the date of sowing,generally the heavier the wheat crops would be rusted.Therewere little or no stripe rust developed when the date of sowing wes later than thelast part of September although the condition might be varied appreciably withdifferent localities.Besides temperature,the period of high concentration of air-bornespores was the most important factor determining the disease severity in the earlysown wheat fields. 3. The stripe rust organism was capable of over-wintering in the form of dormant mycelium within infected leaves under the weather conditions of North Chinaplain.Heavy infection of wheat seedlings was the prerequisite of over-wintering,which was also influenced by micro-environmental conditions such as air temperat-ure,soil moisture and protection from wind.Air temperature was probably the mostessential factor. 4. The dry weather and the low moisture contents in the soil in the earlyspring were unfavorable to the development of the rust.Under these conditions,the over-wintering rust might be completely killed off or much lessened,while hig-her soil humidity usually favored the overspringing of the rust organism.Furtherdevelopment of the disease appeared to depend on the amount and frequency ofprecipitation.However,in flooded areas where the soil moisture was excessivelyhigh,epidemics might occur under dry weather. 5. The over-wintering inoculum was most important for local epidemics in spring,although long distance air-borne spore might also have some influence on the rustdevelopment in the later part of the wheat growing season. 6. Uredospores of stripe rust were not capable of over-summering on volunteerwheats in North China plain.Stripe rust collections from Elymus chinense andAgropyron spp.were capable to infect certain wheat varietes when inoculated arti-ficially,but under natural conditions these grasses appeared to play little part inthe aestivation of this rust in the vast wheat growing areas of North China.Theresults of spore-trapping indicated that Chang-Chia-Kow region and certain partsof inner Mongolia where spring wheats mature as late as the end of August weremost probably the reservoir of over-summering fungus which serve as the mainsource of autumnal infection. 7. Since there are great diversity of types of farming in North China,i.e.,(1)the dry land,(2) the well and river-irrigated land,(3) the low land and river-irrigated land of the mid-part of Shansi Province,and (4) the autumn floodedland,and as the environmental factors effecting the first four stages of stripe rustdevelopment were varied,consequently,the rust development in each type of landwas obviously different from others.The disease struck most severely in the wellor river-irrigated and the autumn-flooded lands. 8. Based on the foregoing results,the writers suggest that by means of timelyobservations and inspections on the stripe rust development during autumn and onthe amounts of the Survival after over-wintering and over-springing along with theweather forecasting data,it is possible to make fairly accurate forecast of the striperust epidemics in North China.

1.华北区小麦条銹病主要的流行区域是井水地、渠澆地及水涝地。2.在秋季田間环境对侵染有利的情况下,小麦播种愈早的發病愈重。播种期晚于一定期限(各地不同,一般是9月下旬)發病就很輕或根本不發病。除温度外,空中孢子在秋季集中时期是决定早播病重的最重要原因。3.条銹菌可在华北北部平原的一般气候条件下以菌絲越冬。越冬的条件有二:首先是麦苗發病严重;其次是小气象适合。后者包括温度、土壤湿度与遮蔽物的有無等,其中起主导作用的是温度。4.春季的土壤湿度愈高,对条锈菌的“越春”愈有利。锈菌越春以后的流行一般是决定于雨水的多寡。但土壤湿度过大时(水涝地),也可以不依賴雨水多寡而在小区域內流行。5.春季菌源是多元的,但本地越冬菌起决定性作用,外地吹来的孢子只在后期起輔助作用。地面發病的严重程度和时期与空中孢子發現日期及濃度成正相关。6.条锈菌不能在华北平原的自生麦上和用抱子形态越夏,禾本科杂草中碱草及綠鬚鵝冠草锈菌用人工接种,虽可以發生枯斑反应或长出少数条锈病斑,但在分类上与小麦条銹菌不同,在大面积上不起越夏桥梁作用。根据秋季空中孢子捕捉和地面調查結??果,北方張家口专区壩土及內蒙古平地泉行政区等晚熟春麦区作为小麦条...

1.华北区小麦条銹病主要的流行区域是井水地、渠澆地及水涝地。2.在秋季田間环境对侵染有利的情况下,小麦播种愈早的發病愈重。播种期晚于一定期限(各地不同,一般是9月下旬)發病就很輕或根本不發病。除温度外,空中孢子在秋季集中时期是决定早播病重的最重要原因。3.条銹菌可在华北北部平原的一般气候条件下以菌絲越冬。越冬的条件有二:首先是麦苗發病严重;其次是小气象适合。后者包括温度、土壤湿度与遮蔽物的有無等,其中起主导作用的是温度。4.春季的土壤湿度愈高,对条锈菌的“越春”愈有利。锈菌越春以后的流行一般是决定于雨水的多寡。但土壤湿度过大时(水涝地),也可以不依賴雨水多寡而在小区域內流行。5.春季菌源是多元的,但本地越冬菌起决定性作用,外地吹来的孢子只在后期起輔助作用。地面發病的严重程度和时期与空中孢子發現日期及濃度成正相关。6.条锈菌不能在华北平原的自生麦上和用抱子形态越夏,禾本科杂草中碱草及綠鬚鵝冠草锈菌用人工接种,虽可以發生枯斑反应或长出少数条锈病斑,但在分类上与小麦条銹菌不同,在大面积上不起越夏桥梁作用。根据秋季空中孢子捕捉和地面調查結??果,北方張家口专区壩土及內蒙古平地泉行政区等晚熟春麦区作为小麦条銹菌越夏菌源基地的可能性最大。7.預測預报应該着重地面的發病檢查,根据冬前秋苗上發生情况和越冬率及越春率等3次發病檢查再参考气象預报,可以真作为短期或較长期的預测預报。

According to the results of a 4 years study the over-wintering of the uredialstage of the stem and leaf rust of wheat in the Dairen-Lushun district,it if foundthat the volunteer wheat in the autumn usually serves as an over-wintering hostfor the uredial stage of these two rusts.The volunteer wheat is also responsible forcarrying the leaf rust over summer for the winter wheat infection. The uredospores on the cut straw of wheat show a far less over-winteringcapacity than those on living over-wintering plants.A...

According to the results of a 4 years study the over-wintering of the uredialstage of the stem and leaf rust of wheat in the Dairen-Lushun district,it if foundthat the volunteer wheat in the autumn usually serves as an over-wintering hostfor the uredial stage of these two rusts.The volunteer wheat is also responsible forcarrying the leaf rust over summer for the winter wheat infection. The uredospores on the cut straw of wheat show a far less over-winteringcapacity than those on living over-wintering plants.A relatively warm and wetmicroclimate is believed to favour the overwinter of the rusts.A very small portionof the uredospores of the stem rust on the early sown wheat when protected by awindbreak are capable of tiding the fungus over winter.Only in a warm winter,afew uredial may survive in the form of latent mycelia in the green leaves.It isinferred therefore that the over-wintering of uredial stage of this rust in Dairen-Lushun district is unimportant. On the other hand,a large quantity of the uredospores of leaf rust overwinterswithout difficulty on the volunteer wheat and winter wheat in Dairen-Lushun districtand act as a constant source of spring intection.

1.在旅大地区自生麦是小麦叶銹和秆銹的越冬寄主,也是绣菌(主要是叶锈)在秋季过渡到各小麦上去的桥梁。2.無論是秆绣或叶銹菌,在生长的麦株上的夏孢子堆此割下的麦株上的夏孢子堆的越冬力强得多。温暖而湿潤的小气候有利于秆銹和叶銹的越冬。3.秆銹菌只在早播、蔽風、秋季發病較多的情况下,有一部分夏孢子,可能在冬小麦及自生麦上越冬;在較暖和的冬季,有少数以菌絲状态在綠叶內越冬??在旅大的一般大田中,秋季秆銹在冬小麦上几乎不發生;而在自生麦上越冬的可能也非常之小。因此旅大区有时虽然有秆锈菌的越冬,但不可能是小麦秆銹越冬的主要場所。4.在旅大区,小麦叶銹菌的夏孢子堆在冬麦和自生麦上普遍越冬,早春即行扩展蔓延。在蔽風暖和处,也能以菌絲状态在綠叶內越冬。

 
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