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    Letter of Credit (L/C) evolves out of businessman, which is set by bank for exporter according to the application of importer, written promise guaranteeing to pay other funds that the payment for goods or other things the L/C stipulate after receiving the document which accords with the regulation of the letter of credit that people submitted.
    信用证(Letter of Credit,简称L/C)起初产生于商人之间,是银行根据进口人的申请向出口人开立的,保证在收到出口人提交的符合信用证规定的单据后支付货款或信用证规定的其他款项的书面保证。
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    A Study on the Legal Problems of Multi-modal Transport Document
    国际货物多式联运单据法律问题研究
短句来源
    Bill of Lading is a document issued by the carrier to the shipper in the course of carriage of goods by sea. It plays an important role in overseas transportation and international trade.
    提单是海上货物运输中由承运人签发给托运人的一张单据,它在远洋运输和国际贸易中都发挥着重要作用。
短句来源
    The MTD (Multi-modal Transportation Document), takes an important role in this respect, but up to now, there is no effective international convention which could be applied to MTD compulsively, there are few studies on this area in China neither.
    多式联运单据在国际货物多式联运中,无疑扮演着非常重要的角色,但是对于国际多式联运单据,国际上至今也没有一部强制适用的公约/法规,我国对多式联运单据的研究还不很深入,这也造成在国际多式联运中,单据纠纷多有发生,而对于纠纷的解决,又往往无法可依。
短句来源
    enumerate some popular MTD used now, compare the different clauses of these document, try to summarize the key point and character of all of clauses.
    并列举了目前国际上通用的几种国际多式联运单据的格式、条款,通过几种格式单据的比较,归纳总结了多式联运单据条款的特点及作用,同时列举了几种常见的多式联运单据中的问题条款;
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  “单据”译为未确定词的双语例句
    On model for transfer of electronic transport message and UN Transport Law
    论电子运输单据转让的法律构筑——兼论《UN运输法》草案
短句来源
    Then how to protect the interests of the lawful holder of the bills of lading?
    那麽在欺诈性单据如倒签提单中,如何有效保护提单持有人的合法权益?
短句来源
    The Legal Status of a Bank When It Has All the Paper under UCP500
    浅析UCP500下银行持有全套单据后的法律地位
短句来源
    On Rights and Obligations of the Contract Parties When the Discrepant Documents Dishonored
    论信用证单据不符对买卖双方权利义务的影响
短句来源
    Analysis on Bank's Dealing with L/C Documents from the Angle of Law
    对银行处理信用证单据的法律探析
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The analysis of roller pen inks has become more and more important in fraudulent document examination because of the extensive use of roller pens in financial documents.
      
The precision and recall of multi-document's automatic abstracting is above 75%.
      
Document image retrieval based on multi-density features
      
The development of document image databases is becoming a challenge for document image retrieval techniques.
      
Traditional layout-reconstructed-based methods rely on high quality document images as well as an optical character recognition (OCR) precision, and can only deal with several widely used languages.
      
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Waybill is one of the new documents in international marine Cargo Shipping. It is unclear wheather or not the Hague Rules apply to Waybill, but can be made to do so by express contract. The Waybill Consignee is not vested by the general law with the right to take suit against the Carrier. AH. 3 of CMI Uniform Rules for Sea Waybill solves this problems to a certain degree. At last, the articcle discusses the shippers instructions to stop in transit.

货运单作为新兴单据,其地位日显重要,但海牙规则并未明确货运单是否属于其调整的对象,对货运单条款的技术处理方案,将有效地解决这一问题;货运单项下收货人的诉权困惑,实践中的多种操作方案,均未能取得理想效果,最新的“海上货运单统一规则”第3条虽然合理,但缺陷仍存;运输期间货物控制权归属,理论和实际存在着差异,文章探讨了收货人如何防止发货人擅自变更送货指示的几种自我救济方法。

This paper deals with the main forms of cheating in letters of credit and the countermeasures against it. The main forms of the cheating are counterfeiting L/C, counterfeiting documents and files, and issuing L/C in which articles are easy to be misunderstood. The countermeasures against cheating include taking precautions, exercising the dishonour right vigorously and seeking judicial protection.

信用证欺诈的主要形式有伪造单据、伪造信用证、开立“陷阱”信用证.对策有加强预防、积极行使拒付权、寻求司法干预等.本文对跟单的、不可撤销的信用证交易中的欺诈的形式和对策进行了初步探讨和研究

The letter of credit system allows the beneficiary to secure payment without having to submit to scrutiny of whether it has fulfilled its contractual duties with the applicant. This is referred to as the principle of independence (or autonomy). However, an exception to the principle of independence has been recognized in the cases of fraud on the part of the beneficiary. The purpose of this paper is to: (a) analyze the development and the nature of the fraud exception; (b) deal with "fraud" defined, the exception...

The letter of credit system allows the beneficiary to secure payment without having to submit to scrutiny of whether it has fulfilled its contractual duties with the applicant. This is referred to as the principle of independence (or autonomy). However, an exception to the principle of independence has been recognized in the cases of fraud on the part of the beneficiary. The purpose of this paper is to: (a) analyze the development and the nature of the fraud exception; (b) deal with "fraud" defined, the exception of the fraud exception, the duties of the issuing bank once fraud is alleged, alleging fraud and seeking injunction; (c) review the practice of China's courts applying the principle of the fraud exception, and suggest alternatives to perfect the legal system of the fraud exception.

信用证的独立性 (或自主性 )原则是信用证体系赖以生存和发展的根本性原则 ,依据该原则信用证及相关的单据与合同交易是分离的。但是这种机制为受益人从事欺诈行为创造了条件 ,基于此 ,各国逐渐地发展了遏制信用证欺诈的重要制度———信用证欺诈例外。本文拟对欺诈例外的涵义及特征作一分析 ,并就欺诈例外适用中的何谓“欺诈”、欺诈例外适用的排除、开证行应如何应对欺诈例外、欺诈例外与法院禁付令的关系等重要问题进行探讨 ,并在评论我国司法实践中存在的问题的基础上 ,就我国相关法制的完善问题作一思考。

 
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