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封建     
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  feudal
     A Study in Feudal Survivals in Political Lives in Contemporary China
     当代中国政治生活中的封建残余研究
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     Common Characteristics of the Oriental Female Culture in the Late Feudal Society
     论封建末世东方女性文化的共同特征
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     Education of Gaogouli reflected educational condition of our country's ancient northeast area which was developmental miniature of the feudal education in our country northeast area.
     以儒家为本位的高句丽教育反映着我国古代东北地区的教育状况,是汉唐之际封建教育在我国东北地区发展的缩影。
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     The Relation between Salt Traders and Feudal Government of Yangzhou in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
     明清时期扬州盐商与封建政府关系
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     Physical Geography Factors and Features of Feudal Economic Development in Russia
     俄国自然地理条件与封建经济发展特征
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  feudalism
     Both in the Chinese history and Korean history, there were severe conflicts in the 1920s and 1930s between imperialism and nationalism, revolution and counterrevolution, the Western culture and traditional culture, enlightenment and feudalism.
     在中国与朝鲜的历史上,二十世纪二、三十年代帝国主义与民族主义、革命与反革命、西方文化思潮与传统文化、启蒙与封建思想等产生了激烈冲突,因此具有许多共同的社会问题。
短句来源
     on the other hand, christian school led western educationalsystem into china at the first , which lashed the old education of feudalism anddeveloped modern education .
     另一方面,教会学校在近代中国率先引进了具有近代意义的西方教育体系,这对冲击封建旧教育、发展近代新教育、推动中国教育近代化起了某种积极作用。
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     Compare the Condition and Influence of Chinese Land System to the Western Europe One in the Period from the Feudalism to the Capitalism
     社会转型时期中西封建土地制度状况及影响比较
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     Public Administration VS Feudalism System in Modern Government
     封建制VS现代政府公共管理
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     It played an indispensable role in stabilizing the situation of the border area, mediating the national relation and safeguarding the ruling of feudalism in Ming-and-Qing dynasties.
     认为土司制度是明清中央政权在这一地区实行的符合民族特点的地方行政体制,对稳定边疆地区的局势、调和民族关系、维护明清的封建统治,起到了不可或缺的作用。
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  the feudal
     2. Glorifying the feudal idea.
     2、封建观念堂皇化:宣传封建贞操观;
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     In the middle of the 19th century, the literature of the Eastern Asia shifted from the feudal to the modern which is symbolized by the emergence of the Enlighten literature.
     19世纪中后期,东亚各国先后受到近代西方文明的冲击,东亚文学由封建文学向近代文学转型,其转型的标志就是启蒙文学的出现。
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     After sketching the feudal political order the dissertation describes the two main features of feudal constitutional thought: kings under law and contractual democracy.
     本文在概要分析了封建政治秩序之后,分别从统治者与法律和统治者与社会共同体两个角度描述了封建宪政思想的两个总体特征:王在法下和契约民主。
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     The Xianbei and the Feudal Legal Construction in Ancient China
     鲜卑族与中国封建法制建设
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     2,thinking of the feudal and autocratic rule has hindered the development of science and technology;
     2、封建专制的思想统治一直阻碍着科学技术的发展;
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  feudalist
     As an agricaltural country,the majority of China's population is country women,who suffered most from feudalist ideology.
     中国是个农业大国,中国人口中的多数是农村妇女,她们受封建思想意识毒害最深,因此,她们的生活状态最易暴露社会的本质矛盾,最能引起人们的关切和同情。
短句来源
     Though they were different in the design of political system, but they were consistent in the maintenance of feudalist system--the Basic system.
     他们在政治制度设计上虽有分歧,但在维护封建专制制度这一根本问题上是完全一致的。
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     In the early 20th century, with the development of Chinese economy and the invasion of foreign capitalist economy, it is difficult for the feudalist law to adapt itself to the situation.
     20世纪初,中国经济社会的发展和外国资本主义经济的入侵,使得封建法制难以适应。
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     However, land decentralization doesn't mean development of capitalist economy in Chinese agriculture, but the decline of feudalist land system.
     但是 ,土地分散化趋势虽然是封建土地制度的衰落 ,但并不意味着农业资本主义经济的发展。
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     By joining the salt book,the big merchants acquired the opportunity to enter the feudalist government system and became the privileged businessmen providing the public finance service for the government which protected the property rights of the big merchansts.
     富商大贾通过加入盐籍,获得了这次产权划分与财富分配的机会,进入封建政府体制内,成为为唐政府财政服务的特权商人,并因此获得了唐政府的产权保护;
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  feudal
Liang mapped stages of progress (from primitive tribal forms of social organization to feudal-aristocratic to the centralized monarchy) onto Huang Di (the Yellow Emperor), Yao-Shun, and Yu.
      
HOADLEY, Towards a Feudal Mode of Production: West Java, 1680-1800.
      
The MS Parma Biblioteca Palatina 1227 contains a feudal summa which in the MS is ascribed to Jacques de Revigny.
      
All this took place in tandem with a transition from an economy based partly on plunder and external appropriation to a feudal economy.
      
The feudal lords used to organise "commercial" campaigns, aimed at capturing people and getting ransom.
      
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  feudalism
New patterns of socio-cultural understanding develop, that could be described as industrial feudalism.
      
Marxist notions of the origins of capitalism are still largely structured by the famous debate on the transition from feudalism to capitalism.
      
The political and symbolic economy of state feudalism: The case of late-medieval Flanders
      
The German Peasants' War and the "crisis of feudalism.' Reflections on a neglected theme
      
The view that the Peasants' War stemmed from a "crisis of feudalism" has been principally advanced by Peter Blickle.
      
更多          
  the feudal
The feudal lords used to organise "commercial" campaigns, aimed at capturing people and getting ransom.
      
Small-holding peasants and middle-class groups sought to reform the feudal practice of jurisdictional privileges by the greater gentry of Anglo-Irish landlords.
      
If, however, it can be established that the AMP does have an inherent dynamic then the defence of the feudal view is weakened.
      
In this paper a brief description and analysis is given of mathematics education in different phases of the history of Mozambique, in the feudal and colonial times, during the National Liberation Struggle and after the Independence in 1975.
      
The "feudal" Empire and its princely states were for a very long period not less adequate within the European context than were other imaginable social structures.
      
更多          
  feudalist
Areas outside the Empire had feudalist systems which continued as communist structures.
      
Within the United States, information feudalist legislative proposals have sparked a number of dystopian critiques.
      
  其他


The present paper consists of five parts:(1)a general consideration of chinese alchemy and alchemists from Chin-Han(秦汉)period to the North and the South Dynasties(南北朝),(2) chief chemical contributions made,(3)the material and intellectual sources of chinese alchemy, (4)transmution of met Is and the dissolution of gold specially considered,(5)relation of chinese alchemy to medicine. The whole subject is considered from materialistic historical view-point. Thus it is treated in more extensive and consistent...

The present paper consists of five parts:(1)a general consideration of chinese alchemy and alchemists from Chin-Han(秦汉)period to the North and the South Dynasties(南北朝),(2) chief chemical contributions made,(3)the material and intellectual sources of chinese alchemy, (4)transmution of met Is and the dissolution of gold specially considered,(5)relation of chinese alchemy to medicine. The whole subject is considered from materialistic historical view-point. Thus it is treated in more extensive and consistent manner thanhas ever been done.

本文内容包括六部分:(一)概述,(二)鍊丹术对化学的贡献。(三)鍊丹术的物质基础 和思想基础,(四)鍊金术。(五)鍊丹术与医业的关系。(六)鍊丹术的理论。本文所讨论的 是我国封建社会前期──从秦、汉到南北朝的情况。全篇以历史唯物主义为主道思想,在讨论如 部分中问题时,较以往的同类著作,考虑得更为全面和更为一贯。

The science of acoustics emerged in China early, acoustical theories in written form appeared as far back as 6th century B.C. and it was only due to the oppression of reuda-lism and imperialism that acoustics together with other branches of science declined in recent years. In these thirty years after liberation, work in acoustics, both theoretical and practical aspects, flourished astounishingly, and important force is formed, contributing more and more to the socialistic reconstruction. The growth of the acoustical...

The science of acoustics emerged in China early, acoustical theories in written form appeared as far back as 6th century B.C. and it was only due to the oppression of reuda-lism and imperialism that acoustics together with other branches of science declined in recent years. In these thirty years after liberation, work in acoustics, both theoretical and practical aspects, flourished astounishingly, and important force is formed, contributing more and more to the socialistic reconstruction. The growth of the acoustical community, the academic activities and the main contributions are reviewed for this period.

声学在中国发展很早,公元前六世纪就有早期声学理论的记载,只是在近代由于封建制度和帝国主义的压迫,声学和其它学科一样严重落后了。全国解放以来,三十年中,声学工作不论在理论方面,还是在实用方面都有长足的发展,并已形成重要的力量,在社会主义建设中起着越来越重要的作用。本文在研究力量的形成、学术活动和主要贡献方面,综述我国声学工作的成就。

Part Ⅰ Influence of the textile science and technique on vocabularyof Chinese languageMany Chinese idioms,found in various social and political circles and scientificbooks,or used as adjectives,adverbs or abstract nouns in the everyday language,areoriginated from the textile science and technique.A great part of them firstly appearedin ancient literature.Part Ⅱ A brief history and main characteristics of the textile scienceand technique of ChinaThe Chinese textile technique appeared at least more than 6000 years...

Part Ⅰ Influence of the textile science and technique on vocabularyof Chinese languageMany Chinese idioms,found in various social and political circles and scientificbooks,or used as adjectives,adverbs or abstract nouns in the everyday language,areoriginated from the textile science and technique.A great part of them firstly appearedin ancient literature.Part Ⅱ A brief history and main characteristics of the textile scienceand technique of ChinaThe Chinese textile technique appeared at least more than 6000 years ago.At thebeginning of feudalistic society,the technique of silk weaving was surprisingly excellent.The textile science of China has her own special characteristics,for example,opening thefibre by vibration,hand self-twist spinning,determining degree of twist by contractionof yarn,hand sequence programming,special chemical treatment of cloth,and etc.

我国各族劳动人民的纺织生产实践起源很早,范围极广,对民族文化的各个侧面有着深刻的影响。现代汉语的政治、科技各领域均有大量来源于纺织的词汇。日用的形容词、副词及抽象名词,甚至连已沿用了几千年的古典成语,也有不少来自纺织。这在世界上是独特的。远在原始社会,我国纺织技术在黄河、长江流域等广泛的地区,已相当发达。到奴隶社会,纺织品已很精美。封建社会初,纺织品的质量达到高峰。丝织技术几千年来一直称誉于全世界。宋、元以后的棉纺织技术直到鸦片战争还处于世界领先的地位。我国纺织科学技术和中医相似,也是一个宝库。它有自己的独特的内容和风格。发掘这个宝库并与现代技术相结合,将对我国纺织工业现代化的进展有促进作用.

 
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