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差减法
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    SiO2,the main component of quartz sand,is usually determined by HF-H2SO4.Through this way we eliminated the silicon,and then weighed the impurities after being sintered at 800℃.
    测定石英砂中SiO2的含量时,通常先用HF-H2SO4处理,使硅逸去,然后在800℃下灼烧、称重,利用差减法计算。
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    Hg22+was oxidized HG2+by KMnO4 solution and determined Hg22+ and Hg2+. At last,counted Hg、Hg22+Hg2+ Content of the Sample by means of Sbutraction.
    另一份用高锰酸钾氧化Hg22+为Hg2+,测定Hg22+、Hg2+含量,然后用差减法求出Hg、Hg22+和Hg2+的含量。
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    Determination of Fe 2O 3, Al 2O 3, CaO, MgO, MnO 2, NiO, TiO 2 with emission spectrum method and determination of K 2O, Na 2O with flame photometric method were studied. The content of SiO 2 was got by difference method.
    本文研究了发射光谱法测定Fe2 O3 、Al2 O3 、CaO、MgO、MnO、NiO、TiO2 和火焰光度法测定K2 O、Na2 O ,然后以差减法得出SiO2 含量。
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  subtraction method
First, a subtraction method of using empty-target measurements allowed the cross section σtot to be evaluated directly because of a low level of the electromagnetic background.
      
Mobile granules were then segmented from a time-lapse image stack by an adaptive background subtraction method.
      
Employing for ethylene removal the subtraction method introduced in gas chromatography very early by Ray, the achieved separation of inorganic gases was usefully applied for the determination of inorganic gases traces in high purity ethylene.
      
In order to facilitate the use of contour matching, a new approach that combines the adaptive background subtraction method with the border tracing technique was developed and is used to automatically generate the initial contour.
      
The 9q32-34 collection was screened with a subtracted probe enriched in striatal sequences using a directional tag PCR subtraction method.
      
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Oxidation-reduction titration is conventionally used to determine Cr~(3+) in Cr-plating bath, with the result calculated by reverse deducted. It is troublesome, erroneous and time-consuming. Direct photometric determination is recomended. According to the difference in absorption spectrum between Cr~(3+) and Cr~(6+), 620nm is selected as determination wavelength, at which, Cr~(6+) absorbance is close to zero, while Cr~(3+) absorbance still remains in peak region, so that the interfernce of Cr~(6+) can be avoided....

Oxidation-reduction titration is conventionally used to determine Cr~(3+) in Cr-plating bath, with the result calculated by reverse deducted. It is troublesome, erroneous and time-consuming. Direct photometric determination is recomended. According to the difference in absorption spectrum between Cr~(3+) and Cr~(6+), 620nm is selected as determination wavelength, at which, Cr~(6+) absorbance is close to zero, while Cr~(3+) absorbance still remains in peak region, so that the interfernce of Cr~(6+) can be avoided. If proper concentrated Cr~(6+) solution is adopted as blank, the interference of Cr~(6+) will be further eliminated completely. Tests have also been conducted on the interference from other colored ions, such as Cu~(2+), Fe~(3+) and Ni~(2+). It is found that the contents of Cu~(2+) and Ni~(2+) below 2g/L won't cause interference and if 2mL of 1:1 H_3PO_4 are added, Fe~(3+) will be blanketed up to 20g/L. As there is no chemical treatment used, no Cr~(3+) losses or contamination will happen. The method is simple, rapid and more accurate and precise than oxidation-reduction titration(p. 33)

镀铬溶液中三价铬的测定,习惯上都用氧化还原滴定,以差减法算出结果,操作麻烦,误差大,耗时多。本文提出用直接光度法测定,利用三价铬与六价铬吸收光谱的差异,选出了620nm作为测定波长。此时六价铬的吸光度趋近于零,而三价铬的吸光度仍保持在峰值附近,从而避免了六价铬的干扰;再采用适当含量的六价铬空白溶液作为参比,便可完全消除六价铬的干扰。本文还对常见的有色离子Cu~(2+)、Fe~(3+)、Ni~(2+)等的干扰情况进行了试验,发现Cu~(2+)和Ni~(2+)的含量在2g/L以下不产生干扰,Ee~(3+)离子只要加入1:1 H_3PO_42mL,便可掩蔽多至20g/L铁。本法不经过任何化学处理步骤,不会有三价铬的损失或污染,快速简单,其准确度与精密度均优于氧化还原滴定法。

A new method for the indirect continuousdetermination of Cl ̄- and I ̄- in a mixture is de-scribed. The method is based on that silver ioncan react with Cl ̄- and I ̄- to form the precipi-tates AgCl and AgI, the gross amount of Cl ̄-and I ̄- can be got by measurement of uncon-sumed Ag ̄+ by ICP-AES. The precipitate AgClis subsequently dissolved with ammonia forthe indirect determination of Cl ̄-, I ̄- is ob-tained by difference. The experimental condi-tions were optimized. The feasibility of themethod was studied, including...

A new method for the indirect continuousdetermination of Cl ̄- and I ̄- in a mixture is de-scribed. The method is based on that silver ioncan react with Cl ̄- and I ̄- to form the precipi-tates AgCl and AgI, the gross amount of Cl ̄-and I ̄- can be got by measurement of uncon-sumed Ag ̄+ by ICP-AES. The precipitate AgClis subsequently dissolved with ammonia forthe indirect determination of Cl ̄-, I ̄- is ob-tained by difference. The experimental condi-tions were optimized. The feasibility of themethod was studied, including interferences ofco-existing ions, relative standard deviation,detection limits and recovery rate of samples.The recoveries are 97.1%~101.2% for Cl ̄-and 98.1%~100.4% for I ̄-. The method alsoallows simultaneous determination of othermetal elements.

本文研究了在Cl ̄-和I ̄-的混合物中,加入过量Ag ̄+使Cl ̄-和I ̄-分别以AgCl和AgI沉淀后,用ICP-AES测定剩余的Ag ̄+,然后用NH_3·H_2O溶解AgCl沉淀,测定溶解液中的Ag ̄+,间接得到Cl ̄-的含量,以差减法求得I ̄-量,实现Cl ̄-和I ̄-的间接法连续测定。本文探讨了有关的化学条件和光谱测定条件,对方法的适用性进行了考察──共存离子的干扰情况,方法的精密度、检出限和试样中加入回收试验。回收率为97.1%~101.2%(Cl ̄-),98.1%~100.4%(I ̄-)。

The colour reaction of platinum(Ⅳ) with 2 (3,5 dichloro pyridylazo) 5 dimethylaminoaniline and the protonation behaviour of Pt 3,5 diCl PADMA complexes were studied It has been shown that in the medium of 0 04~0 48mol/L H 2SO 4,Pt(Ⅳ) reacts with 3,5 diCl PADMA to form a stable green blue PtL 2H 2+ 2 complex after being heated in a boiling water bath Its apparent molar absorptivity and Sandells sensitivity are 9 73×10 4L·mol -1 ·cm...

The colour reaction of platinum(Ⅳ) with 2 (3,5 dichloro pyridylazo) 5 dimethylaminoaniline and the protonation behaviour of Pt 3,5 diCl PADMA complexes were studied It has been shown that in the medium of 0 04~0 48mol/L H 2SO 4,Pt(Ⅳ) reacts with 3,5 diCl PADMA to form a stable green blue PtL 2H 2+ 2 complex after being heated in a boiling water bath Its apparent molar absorptivity and Sandells sensitivity are 9 73×10 4L·mol -1 ·cm -1 and 0 002μg·cm -2 at 634nm respectively The these protonation constants are lg Ka 1 =3.91,lg Ka 2 =-2.21,lg Ka 3 =-3.37 Beers law is obeyed in the range of 0~7 5μg per 10mL of Pt(Ⅳ) The method has better sensitivity and selectivity Relatively large amounts of co existing ions,including noble metals,can be tolerated It has been applied to the spectrophotometric determination of microamounts of Pt(Ⅳ) in catalyst and alloy samples with satisfactory results

研究了2-(3,5-二氯-2-吡啶偶氮)-5-二甲氨基苯胺(3,5-diCl-PADMA)与铂(Ⅳ)的显色反应及铂配合物的质子化行为。结果表明,在0.04~0.48mol/L的H2SO4溶液中,于加热的条件下,试剂可与铂(Ⅳ)形成稳定的1∶2绿蓝色PtL2H2+2配合物,其最大吸收波长位于634nm,表观摩尔吸光系数为9.73×104L·mol-1·cm-1,桑德尔灵敏度为0.002μg·cm-2。铂配合物的三级质子化常数分别为:lgKa1=3.91,lgKa2=-2.21,lgKa3=-3.37。较大量的常见金属离子及除钯、钌外的其它贵金属离子不干扰测定。利用Pt,Pd与试剂反应所需的温度差异,可以用差减法消除微量Pd的干扰.铂(Ⅳ)浓度在每10mL0~7.5μg范围内符合比尔定律。所拟方法用于二次合金管理样-88及催化剂中微量铂的测定,结果满意。

 
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