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    Foreign policies of Socialist International in 1980s and democratic socialism
    80年代社会党国际的对外政策与民主社会主义
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    Achievements of Women's Higher Education in China Viewed from Historical and International Perspective
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    NOT ALL THE NATIONAL DESIGN HAS INTERNATIONAL CHARACTERIZATION
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    On Trade Protection and the Growth of Infant Industries: International Experienceand China's Choices
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It is questionable for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to select the frequency band of 2 GHz for vehicular mobile telecommunication and unreasonable to distribute it over the downlink and uplink channels symmetrically.
      
According to the international methods of pest risk analysis and urban forestry characteristics in Beijing, a quantitative risk assessment system in Beijing for three primary non-indigenous pests was proposed.
      
However, for the national and international experts, researches on radial sawn timber and its role and function in sound emission have not yet been developed.
      
Collection of problems proposed at International Conference on Variational Methods
      
This collection of problems is based on the Problem Section held on May 24, 2007 during the International Conference on Variational Methods.
      
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Nous racontons d'abord l'histoire des catalogues stellaires en la divisant à trois ǎpoques selon les instruments utilisés pour achever le travail: 1° l'époque de l'alidade munie de pinnules et de la clepsydre, 2° l'époque du cercle méridien et de la pendule sidérale et 3° l'époque de l'équatorial photographique. Nous montrons le fait que beaucoup de découvertes importantes de l'Astronomie sont obtenues de la compilation des catalogues stellaires. Nous passons en revue des catalogues importants tels que B. D.,...

Nous racontons d'abord l'histoire des catalogues stellaires en la divisant à trois ǎpoques selon les instruments utilisés pour achever le travail: 1° l'époque de l'alidade munie de pinnules et de la clepsydre, 2° l'époque du cercle méridien et de la pendule sidérale et 3° l'époque de l'équatorial photographique. Nous montrons le fait que beaucoup de découvertes importantes de l'Astronomie sont obtenues de la compilation des catalogues stellaires. Nous passons en revue des catalogues importants tels que B. D., A. G. C., C. d. C., et les Catalogues de Yale, ainsi que des catalogues fondamentaux tels que G. C. de Boss et FK3 de Kopff. Dans la second partie de cet essaie, nous décrivons amplement le catalogue des étoiles faibles que les astronomes de l' U. R. S. S. ont proposé à faire au huitième Congrès de l'Union Astronomique Internationale; nous exposons ensuite le part que nous pouvons prendre à ce travail important avec quelques petits souhaits que nous formons pour mener à bien cette t()che importante.

這篇文章先敘述星表编制的歷史,以編製星表所用的仪器,分為三个時期,即牆仪漏壺時期,子午仪恆星钟時期与赤道仪照相时期;且說明天文學上許多重要发見均由编制星表得來。其次對重要星表如B.D.,A.G.C.,C.d.C.耶魯等星表,基本星表如鮑斯星表,FK3星表,以及開普泰因選面積計划均加以簡單的介绍。本文第二段對苏联在第八届國際天文學會提议要编制的微星星表加以详细的敘述,并說明佘山觀象台可能参加的項目和我們的希望。

As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until...

As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until December 1950, no further developments were made. The main instruments we had in 1950 were: a 80mm Prin transit with impersonal micrometer, two Leroy pendulums as standard clocks, three astronomical clocks and their slaves, equipments for receiving and recording time signals, etc. Since 1952, we began to make some improvements, especially on rhythmic signals. First, we converted a common clock into a "transmitting clock" to obtain 61 impulses in every minute and second by making use of photoelectric arrangement (Fig. 1), we succeeded to raise the accuracy of our signals. To improve signal accuracy further, we have to deal with various sources of errors which are conditioned by our equipments. The most important among these are: 1. error in prediction of corrections of the standard clocks, 2. error in the adjustment of the transmitting clock and 3. time lag in transmission. In consequence of last three-year's research, these errors are reasonably reduced. The first two are now±0~s.007 and ±0~s.005 respectively and the last is small. Accordingly, the deviation of time signals XSG has been supposed to be±0~s.01. However, this is not enough for the requirement. The more efforts are being made to bring further improvements. But as the requirements for signal accuracy is far above what the present installation can offer, some new equipments are ordered and they will joint in force with the old ones in the nearest future. Since February 1954, Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory has cooperated with the time service departments in Soviet Union. This has been helpful to our works in every way.

授時包括测時、守時和播時三个主要方面。在時號的发播中包含了预報主钟改正量的差误,工作钟的調節誤差和電路遲滯变化等三种誤差。如果使用石英钟及有關设备,这就可基本解决。各台站在其天文观测基础上订定的時號改正數也包含有偶然差和系统差,比較全面解決的只有蘇聯和国際時間局这两个标准系统。徐家匯觀象台授時工作歷史很久,作了一些工作,但抗戰以來,郎停滯不前,直到人民政府接办,才逐步在原有基礎上開展了改進。幾年来主要是改裝了一具工作钟,裝置光電设备以发播科学式時號,對時号精确度解决了秒距誤差和五分间誤差。工作钟的调节誤差被其本身品質所限,仍未解决,只是在加強值班工作之后,有了一定限度的提高,目前約為±0~s.005,在预报主钟改正量時,也有很大程度的不稳定,約為±0~s.007。所以時号的精确度在±0~s.01左右。要进一步提高质量,满足要求,有待於新設備的增添使用。在時号改正數方面,所存在的相當大的系统差,可採用蘇聯或国際時間局系統的改正數來避免。

Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification...

Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification methods, the Chinese coals available with ultimate analysis or proximate analysis data can be easily classified into the following different kinds as known internationally: -anthracite (A), semi-athracite (T), semi-bituminous ( C), coking coal (k), steaming fat coal ( ), gas coal ( ), long flame (candle) coal ( ) and lignite coal ( ), as tabulated on Table - 4. Ⅲ. The Properties of Chinese Coals. (а) The composition of the Chinese Coals - with the exception of ash and sulfur which vary irregularly, the other constituents. like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and analytical moisture vary regularly with the variation of the vodatile matter on combustible basis V in the different stage of carbonization. (б) The Reltation between the ultimate analysis and proximate analysis for the Chinese Coals- In the bituminous coal region, the data of proximate analysis can be transferred to the ultimate analysis proximately according to the straight line formula, as for the bituinous coal. The other constituents like H, O and N, S can also be obtained by the straight line formulas as shown on the graph. (в) The Heating Value of Chinese Coals - The Heating Value of Chinese Coals; when only ultimate analysis data is available, can be checked by using the Mendeleef formula; when Duly the proximate analysis data is available, the heahng value can be checked by the Goutal Formula. When illers is only the ultimate data without any bomb calorimeter, the heating value can be obtained by the following empirical formulas:(p) The Coking Property of the Chinese Coals---The ebbing property can be represent6d by' foe coking coeffident as suggested by the author, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen on combustible. basis (%). With the exception of anthraede, semi--anthracite and liana, ' which will have the ash in powderform, when burned, the other bituminous coals like (1) Semi--bituminous and part of the coking coal, when Vr- 16 ~ 24 7o and (%) = 0.90 1 .8, the ash after combustion will become softly caked; (2) for coking coal, Steaming fat Hr coal and gas coal, when Vr~25-47 and M~0. 58-1 .2, the ash after combustion will become strongly caked; (3) FOr gas coal and long flame coal, when Vr~31 ~46 ac and aam: =0. 34-0. 50, the ash will become softly caked. f {if) The Combustion Characteristics of Chinese Coals -- The combustion characteristics vary with the kind of coal. Which kind of coal is suitable for what kind of industrial use and which type of furnace is suitable for burning what kind' of 'coal,. all depends uPOn the rank, composition and combustion charact6rislics of the coal. F6, economy, it is necessary >to burn the poor quality coal nearby and the problem of caking inside the furnace resulting from poor quality coal muSt be properly solved. ' (in) The ash Fusion point of Chinese Coals -- The ash composition affects the fusion point. greatly. The change in ash composition will of feet the fusion poillt. Thus increasing the met,ilie oxides in the coal ash liko FeZO3, CaO and MAO ate. will raduce the fusion point and will fadlitate the ash disposal in fluid form. On the other hand, whother increasing 'the kaolin (fire clay) in the ash composition will raise the ash fusion point or not is a problem worthy for further investigation and research. ' '. It may be reaseonably assumed as suggested by the auther that the coal ash is mainly consisted of kaolin (Al.O, ZFios ZHZO) + free SiOZ + different motailic odddes (FavOr, CaO and MgO, etc ). When coal is burned, the free SiOZ will combine with some of the metallic

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则...

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则可用古?

 
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