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  unit width
     The optimization inflow rate of unit width and border length in the medium loam planted fruit tree at 1‰, 3‰ 5‰ border slope 6 L/(s·m)and 50 m, 6 L/(s·m)and 90 m, 5 L/(s·m)and 90 m.
     对中壤土果树地1‰、3‰、5‰坡度条件下的畦长和单宽流量组合为分别以50m和6.0L/(s·m)、90m和6.0L/(s·m)、90m和5.0L/(s·m)左右为宜。 同时为达到较高的灌水效率和灌水均匀度,畦田坡度不宜过大。
短句来源
     The results of runoff scouring experiments show that the relationship between unit width runoff energy consumption and uint width sediment production is Dr=18.672 (ΔE-0.751). The parameter of soil anti-erodibility is 18.672 g/J and the critical energy consumption is 0.751 J/(ms).
     通过室内放水冲刷试验,结果表明,陡坡单宽径流能耗与单宽径流产沙率之间存在以下线性关系:Dr=18.672(ΔE - 0.751),说明土壤的可蚀性参数为18.672 g/J,发生坡面细沟侵蚀的临界径流能耗为0.751 J/(ms)。
短句来源
     The Dachaoshan hydropower project has adopted the flaring pier stepped dam face and bucket combined energy dissipator in its design, and the prototype observation of overflowing hydraulics under the design water level was carried out in June, 2002. The streamwise pressure, bottom flow velocity and aeration over the 4 steps along the stepped dam face were measured, and the data on operations under a dam height of over 100m and a per unit width discharge of 165m3/s were obtained.
     大朝山水电站采用宽尾墩阶梯式坝面及戽式联合消能工的设计,于2002年6月进行了设计水位下的过流水力学原型观测,针对阶梯式坝面开展了沿程4个台阶上的压力、底流速和掺所的量测,取得了在100m级高坝、单宽流量165m3/s·m条件下的运行资料。
短句来源
     It was suggested that the maximum energy for unit width could be calculated by E=ρgΔHq.
     水闸消能防冲设计条件一般选用最大单宽能量E=ρgΔHq作为控制条件.
短句来源
     269. The direction of the sediment movement is 110°,the particle velocity is 758 m/d, and the sediment transport rate per unit width is 47. 8m3/md.
     据测量资料分析,在上口抛泥区投放的示踪沙最终沿着110°的运动方向以758m/d的运动速度,在269~#航标附近进入挖槽,单宽输沙率为47.8m~3/md。
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  per unit width
     The Dachaoshan hydropower project has adopted the flaring pier stepped dam face and bucket combined energy dissipator in its design, and the prototype observation of overflowing hydraulics under the design water level was carried out in June, 2002. The streamwise pressure, bottom flow velocity and aeration over the 4 steps along the stepped dam face were measured, and the data on operations under a dam height of over 100m and a per unit width discharge of 165m3/s were obtained.
     大朝山水电站采用宽尾墩阶梯式坝面及戽式联合消能工的设计,于2002年6月进行了设计水位下的过流水力学原型观测,针对阶梯式坝面开展了沿程4个台阶上的压力、底流速和掺所的量测,取得了在100m级高坝、单宽流量165m3/s·m条件下的运行资料。
短句来源
     269. The direction of the sediment movement is 110°,the particle velocity is 758 m/d, and the sediment transport rate per unit width is 47. 8m3/md.
     据测量资料分析,在上口抛泥区投放的示踪沙最终沿着110°的运动方向以758m/d的运动速度,在269~#航标附近进入挖槽,单宽输沙率为47.8m~3/md。
短句来源
     These observation results have provided very important scientific basis for wide application of the flaring pier stepped dam face under the design condition of a high dam and a large per unit width discharge. 
     本观测成果为在推广宽尾墩阶梯式坝面在高坝大单宽流量的设计条件下的应用提供了非常重要的科学依据。
短句来源
     The calculating discharge per unit width is 141m3/m. s.
     数值计算时单宽过量已达141m3/s. m.
短句来源
     Terraced structure and energy dissipation combining high bucket and low one are adopted for the surface of overflow weir,which meets the characteristic that overflow discharge per unit width is large;
     溢流堰面采用台阶式结构,高低戽结合消能,满足溢流坝单宽泄洪量大的特点;
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  “单宽”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Results by energy consumption implied that there was also linear relation between sediment transportation and energy consumption of unit runoff width: Dr=14.61(ΔE-0.37), which indicated that soil erodibility was 14.61 g/J, with critical energy consumption of 0.37 J/(min·cm).
     根据径流能耗理论的计算结果表明,径流单宽输沙率和单宽径流能耗之间具有如下的线性关系式:Dr=14 61(ΔE-0 37),表明试验的土壤可蚀性参数为14 61g/J,临界单宽径流能耗为0 37J/(min·cm)。
短句来源
     The chief function of the CFCTL module produced by the author, which is a single width 6U standard VME module, a 4-layer PCB, has been realized mainly by means of a chip of FPGA which type is XC2S50-5-PQ208C.
     设计制作的CFCTL插件为4层的PCB电路板,是标准的VME单宽6U插件,其主要逻辑功能由一片型号为XC2S50-PQ208C的FPGA芯片实现。
短句来源
     Under the same condition of irrigation-quota and the length of farmland, the velocity of watering under the single width-flow of 1.3L/s·m was 1.64 times on the farmland width of 1.25m film-plastic-covering and it could not destroy the border and the seedling.
     在灌溉定额和畦长相同的条件下,春小麦整个生育期内,单宽流量为 1.3L/(m·s),在膜宽为 1.25 m的畦田内水流推进速度是露地畦灌的 1.64 倍,并且不会发生冲苗冲埂现象。
短句来源
     In such cases, 90% of the total leakage will be collected by the drainage ditches; the amount of leakage per unit length will be 0.2-0.3 m3 /day-m in slightly leaked sections and 0.59-0.78 m3/day·m in seriously leaked sections.
     此时90%以上的渗流量被截入沟,弱渗流段单宽渗漏量为0.20—0.30米~3/日·米,强渗流段为0.59—0.78米~3/日·米。
短句来源
     The maximum height of the RCC gravity dam for Dachaoshan Hydropower Station is 111 m, and its design flood level is 899 m(500-year flood return period). In that case, the design discharge of the sluice weir is 9 992 m3/s, and design unit discharge is 132.7 m3/(s·m).
     大朝山水电站碾压混凝土重力坝的最大坝高为111m,设计洪水位为899m(500年一遇),此时,表孔下泄的设计流量为9992m3/s,堰顶设计单宽流量为132.7m3(/s·m)。
短句来源
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  unit width
Application of the maximum width of the grid and flow rate per unit width of the river results in the number of flow zones in the lateral direction of the river.
      
The peel strength is the first peak force per unit width of bondline required to produce progressive separation, and the peel energy is the amount of energy per unit bonding area associated with a crack opening.
      
Estimates of cross-reef mass transport per unit width ranged from 0.058 to 0.032?m2s?-1.
      
In the strip packing problem (a standard version of the two-dimensional cutting stock problem), the goal is to pack a given set of rectangles into a vertical strip of unit width so as to minimize the total height of the strip needed.
      
It is shown that any plane set of constant unit width contains a semi-circle of radius 1/2, and using this a minimal univeral plane cover is explicitly constructed.
      
更多          
  per unit width
Application of the maximum width of the grid and flow rate per unit width of the river results in the number of flow zones in the lateral direction of the river.
      
The peel strength is the first peak force per unit width of bondline required to produce progressive separation, and the peel energy is the amount of energy per unit bonding area associated with a crack opening.
      
Estimates of cross-reef mass transport per unit width ranged from 0.058 to 0.032?m2s?-1.
      
The intrinsic force per unit width, S, in thin films of Ag, Al, ZnS and LiF prepared by vacuum evaporation at pressures of less than 5×10-5 Torr, has been investigated using a sensitive bending plate technique with capacitative detection.
      
Measurement of contact angles for the flowing beads and for sessile drops led to the conclusion that the surface tension forces per unit width were similar for the drops on the two surfaces.
      
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This paper is confined to a discussion of prevention of seepage from earth dams by means of blankets upstream which is considered to be a method for greater,quicker,better and more eco- nomical results.The following main problems are included: 1.Ideas of possibilities of piping through foundation soil and resistance of soil to percola- tion,and their effects on calculations of the lengths of blankets; 2.Calculations of economical and safe lengths of blankets and discharge of seepage; 3.Determination of the line...

This paper is confined to a discussion of prevention of seepage from earth dams by means of blankets upstream which is considered to be a method for greater,quicker,better and more eco- nomical results.The following main problems are included: 1.Ideas of possibilities of piping through foundation soil and resistance of soil to percola- tion,and their effects on calculations of the lengths of blankets; 2.Calculations of economical and safe lengths of blankets and discharge of seepage; 3.Determination of the line of saturation behind a inclined wall and the equipotential line below a blanket. The choice of the minimum blanket length depends in the main on the following conditions: 1.The seepage gradient through the dam foundation below the blanket jo is lower than or equal to the allowable gradient for the soil in the dam foundation(in consideration of no de- formation in seepage); 2.The discharge of seepage per unit width q is lower than or equal to the allowable design discharge (in consideration of storage and exploitation of water energy). Based on the subdivision principles of and the above-mentioned con- siderations,the following equations are derived.For the first condition,the blanket length is calculated from Equation(15);and that for the second condition,Equation(14). When the blanket length is known,the discharge of seepage can be calculated from Equa- tion (18). The blanket thickness is calculated by Equation(25). The 72 experiments made in the laboratory show that the formulas presented in the paper appear to be for the present more accurate than that of other scholars at home and abroad. The theoretical analysis and experiments may lead to the following important ideas regarding prevention of seepage by means of blankets: 2.The less the permeability of a blanket(k_0/k_n>5000)is,the greater its effect of seepage prevention will be,and vice versa; 2.Independent of the permeability of a blanket,there exists the idea of“effective blanket length”,i.e.,for a length larger than the effective length,the effect of seepage prevention of blanket is its permeability increases. 3.It is impossible for a blanket of stronger permeability(independent of length)to do as well as that of weaker permeability(with respect to discharge of seepage).Thus the weaker the permeability of blanket,the better and the value of k_0/K_n should be higher than 2000 at least.

本文指出土坝上游用铺盖防渗是一种符合多、快、好、省的方法.本文主要研究了下列问题:1.介绍基础土壤的管涌可能性及其所谓抗渗强度的概念,并讨论它们对设计铺盖长度的影响;2.讨论了经济安全的铺盖长度、厚度及渗流量计算;3.确定斜墙后浸润线的位置及铺盖下等势线的分布.选择最短铺盖长度,主要取决于下面两个条件:1.铺盖下坝基渗透坡降 j_0小于或等于坝基土壤的尤许坡降(以不发生渗透变形为原则);2.单宽渗流量小于或等于允许设计渗流量 (以蓄水水能利用为原则).根据巴夫洛夫斯基的分段法原理及上述原则得到下列计算公式.铺盖长度计算:表示第一个条件的计算公式为(15)式;表示第二个条件的为(14)式.给定了铺盖长度后,渗流量按(18)式计算.铺盖的厚度按(25)式计算.从72个试验资料证实本文所建议的计算公式在目前说来,较其他国内外学者的公式精度高.从理论和试验研究结果可得铺盖防渗的几点重要的概念:1.铺盖的透水性愈小(k_0/k_n≥5000)防渗的效用也就愈大,反之防渗的效用则很小.2.不管铺盖的透水性强与弱都存在着“有效铺盖长度”的概念,即铺盖的长度如大于有效铺盖长度时,它的防渗作用不显著.“有效铺盖长度...

本文指出土坝上游用铺盖防渗是一种符合多、快、好、省的方法.本文主要研究了下列问题:1.介绍基础土壤的管涌可能性及其所谓抗渗强度的概念,并讨论它们对设计铺盖长度的影响;2.讨论了经济安全的铺盖长度、厚度及渗流量计算;3.确定斜墙后浸润线的位置及铺盖下等势线的分布.选择最短铺盖长度,主要取决于下面两个条件:1.铺盖下坝基渗透坡降 j_0小于或等于坝基土壤的尤许坡降(以不发生渗透变形为原则);2.单宽渗流量小于或等于允许设计渗流量 (以蓄水水能利用为原则).根据巴夫洛夫斯基的分段法原理及上述原则得到下列计算公式.铺盖长度计算:表示第一个条件的计算公式为(15)式;表示第二个条件的为(14)式.给定了铺盖长度后,渗流量按(18)式计算.铺盖的厚度按(25)式计算.从72个试验资料证实本文所建议的计算公式在目前说来,较其他国内外学者的公式精度高.从理论和试验研究结果可得铺盖防渗的几点重要的概念:1.铺盖的透水性愈小(k_0/k_n≥5000)防渗的效用也就愈大,反之防渗的效用则很小.2.不管铺盖的透水性强与弱都存在着“有效铺盖长度”的概念,即铺盖的长度如大于有效铺盖长度时,它的防渗作用不显著.“有效铺盖长度”是随铺盖的透水性增加而减小.3.想用强透水性的铺盖防渗(不管铺盖怎样长),要达到弱透水性铺盖那样的效果是不可能的(指渗流量的大小而言),因此,铺盖的透水性愈小愈好,k_0/k_n 值最好至少大于2000.

~~

本文首先說明坡面径流研究的重要性。其次对于各种坡面流速公式,以及集流时間及退水时間公式作一簡单概述。文中对人工降雨坡面径流专門試驗給出簡要的描述。对于这些試驗結果进行經驗整理,得到下列形式的坡面流速公式: v=(K_q)~(1/2)I~(1/3)式中:v——断面平均流速(厘米/秒);I——坡面的坡度;q——单寬(1米)流量(升/分钟);K——系数,草地为3.0,光地为7.5。至于坡面集流时間,則因按稳定流或不稳定流計算而异。試驗表明,稳定流坡面集流时間对坡面洪峯传播时間(不稳定流)之比約等于2。文中对坡面退水时間理論公式与試驗数据进行厂比較,发現理論公式計算結果偏小,并提出了坡面退水时間經驗公式。

Applying the laboratory test data obtained by J. W. Holl and D. Colgate, this paper tries to estimate the required control of surface irregularities for high overflow dams so as to avoid the incipiency of cavitation damage. By plotting the prototype observation data of five overflow dams, an empirical equation of the velocity coefficient φ as a function of H/q~(2/3) is first established. Thereby, with given H and q, the various valuesof the surface shooting flow for the non-aerated case, such as depth, mean...

Applying the laboratory test data obtained by J. W. Holl and D. Colgate, this paper tries to estimate the required control of surface irregularities for high overflow dams so as to avoid the incipiency of cavitation damage. By plotting the prototype observation data of five overflow dams, an empirical equation of the velocity coefficient φ as a function of H/q~(2/3) is first established. Thereby, with given H and q, the various valuesof the surface shooting flow for the non-aerated case, such as depth, mean velocity,Froude number, and cavitation index may be determined. The experimental data given by Colgate have been analysed and the cavitationindices of the two test specimens have been calculated. The four “σ_i~△/δ” chartsas given by Holl are put into a single diagram, in which the results of Colgate are alsoincorporated. Based upon the prototype observation data of the Norris Dam, Glennmaggie Dam, nd Werribee Weir, an empirical equation for the boundary layer thickness is established, and a comparison of the equation with those given by W. J. Bauer—V. T. Chow and G. Halbronn is made. With the diagrams and equations so obtained, the incipient cavitation index and the corresponding allowable maximum surface irregularities can be estimated. In the final part of the paper, the limit of the cavitation index has been suggested below which special treatment of the concrete surface such as used in the Hungry Horse Dam should be adopted.

本文对于迫切需要解决的溢流高坝避免发生室穴現象的問題,根据現有室內試驗及原型观測資料,进行了初步估算。首先綜合了赫尔(J.W.Holl)及柯尔盖脫(D.Colgate)的室內空穴試驗資料。其次根据五个工程的原型观測資料,得出流速系数φ与H/q~(2/3)的經驗关系,从而可依次求得不掺气射流水深d、平均流速v、傅汝德数F、泄洪空穴数σ与H、q的关系。再次,根据三个工程的观測資料,得出估算边界层厚度的經驗公式,与鮑尔(W.J.Bauer)——周文德公式及哈尔勃龙(G.Halbronn)公式进行此較。綜合运用上述資料,可将溢流高坝的泄洪空穴数σ和不平整度△发生联系,估算坝面的平整度要求或单寬流量的限制值。最后,对于混凝土溢流面参考餓馬(Hungry Horse)坝隧洞衬砌进行特殊处理的空穴数界限,提出了初步意見。

 
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