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单宽
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  unit width
    The results of runoff scouring experiments show that the relationship between unit width runoff energy consumption and uint width sediment production is Dr=18.672 (ΔE-0.751). The parameter of soil anti-erodibility is 18.672 g/J and the critical energy consumption is 0.751 J/(ms).
    通过室内放水冲刷试验,结果表明,陡坡单宽径流能耗与单宽径流产沙率之间存在以下线性关系:Dr=18.672(ΔE - 0.751),说明土壤的可蚀性参数为18.672 g/J,发生坡面细沟侵蚀的临界径流能耗为0.751 J/(ms)。
短句来源
    The unit width runoff energy consumption increased with the flow discharge increasing but changed in parabola form. The critical slope is between 21 and 24. The energy consumption in the upper section of the steep slope increased with the discharge of flow and slope and decreased in the middle section of the slope but stable in low section.
    坡面单宽径流能耗随流量增大而增加,随坡度变化呈抛物线趋势,临界坡度出现在21和24之间。 坡面上各段面单宽径流能耗均随流量的增大而增加,随着坡度逐渐增加,坡面上部段面能耗渐增,中部段面渐减,下部较稳定。
短句来源
    The uneven natural slope surface has resulted in concentrated runoff, causing the variations of velocity and increased energy of unit width discharge.
    自然坡面的非均匀性导致径流集中 ,由此引起径流流速变化及单宽流量所具有的能量增加。
短句来源
    The possessed energy of unit width discharge is direct proportion with the cube of ratio of original slope width B to width b after runoff concentrated.
    单宽流量所具有的能量 ,与原坡面宽度B和径流集中后宽度b比值的三次方成正比。
短句来源
    The correlations between the hydrodynamic factors of slope flow (including the discharge, flow energy consumption per unit width, flow shear stress, stream power and unit stream power) and soil detachment rate are experimentally studied in a flume. The width of the flume is 100cm, the gradient of the slope is ranging from 3° to 30° and the flow discharge is varied from 2.5l/min to 6.5l/min.
    为了确定何种水蚀动力因子能准确地描述径流剥蚀土壤的过程,本文在坡度为3°到30°和流量为2 5L min到6 5L min范围内采用土槽径流冲刷试验,运用灰色关联分析法,系统地研究了坡面水蚀动力因子(流量、单宽径流能耗、水流剪切力、水流功率和单位水流功率)与土壤剥蚀率之间的关联度。
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    The result also shows thata limitation of increasing the roughness coefficient value exists by increasing the litter amount. Thetop limitation of the litter amotint is about 0.250~0. 300g /cm ̄2(equal 25~30t/hm ̄2)while the unitwidth flow is about 94ml(m.s).
    研究结果还表明枯落物量和枯草量的增加对糙率系数n值的增大有一定限度,当单宽流量q为94ml/(m.s)时,枯落物量的上限值约为0.250~0.300g/cm ̄2(相当于25~30t/hm ̄2)。
短句来源
    Results by energy consumption implied that there was also linear relation between sediment transportation and energy consumption of unit runoff width: Dr=14.61(ΔE-0.37), which indicated that soil erodibility was 14.61 g/J, with critical energy consumption of 0.37 J/(min·cm).
    根据径流能耗理论的计算结果表明,径流单宽输沙率和单宽径流能耗之间具有如下的线性关系式:Dr=14 61(ΔE-0 37),表明试验的土壤可蚀性参数为14 61g/J,临界单宽径流能耗为0 37J/(min·cm)。
短句来源
    There were similar trends in both observed data and the calculated data by unit runoff power theory,which changed with slope like parabola,and the maximum data appeared at 21° slope.
    实测数据和据单位径流侵蚀功率理论计算的坡面单宽径流侵蚀产沙量表现出了相似的变化规律,两者都随坡度的增加呈抛物线变化,坡面单宽径流侵蚀产沙量的最大值都出现在21°左右,且二者之间具有良好的线性关系。
短句来源
    On the slope of 3°~21°,the average runoff consumption increases with slope,and decreases with slope when the slope gradient is over the critical gradient(21°~24°).
    在3°~21°坡度范围内,坡面径流单宽能耗随坡度的增加而增加,当坡度超过21°时,径流能耗随坡度的增加而降低。
短句来源
    Random roughness increased, while oriented roughness decreased in an exponent function gradually. (3 )Rainfall and runoff.
    (3)降雨径流,随着单宽径流量的增加,随机糙度的变化量递增,随着径流量的增加,这种递增趋势增强;
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  unit width
Application of the maximum width of the grid and flow rate per unit width of the river results in the number of flow zones in the lateral direction of the river.
      
The peel strength is the first peak force per unit width of bondline required to produce progressive separation, and the peel energy is the amount of energy per unit bonding area associated with a crack opening.
      
Estimates of cross-reef mass transport per unit width ranged from 0.058 to 0.032?m2s?-1.
      
In the strip packing problem (a standard version of the two-dimensional cutting stock problem), the goal is to pack a given set of rectangles into a vertical strip of unit width so as to minimize the total height of the strip needed.
      
It is shown that any plane set of constant unit width contains a semi-circle of radius 1/2, and using this a minimal univeral plane cover is explicitly constructed.
      
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In the laboratory,the effect of three kinds arbored litter and one kind of Poaceaewithered grasses to the value of roughness coefficient in the Manning Formula were studied.Theformulas of power relating between the value of roughness coefficient and the amount of the litterhave been gotten. The results show that the more litter,the higher value n is,and at the same con-ditions the effect order of litter to the roughness coefficient from higher to lower is Populus Linn.litter,Robinia Pseudoacacia Linn.litter,Pinus...

In the laboratory,the effect of three kinds arbored litter and one kind of Poaceaewithered grasses to the value of roughness coefficient in the Manning Formula were studied.Theformulas of power relating between the value of roughness coefficient and the amount of the litterhave been gotten. The results show that the more litter,the higher value n is,and at the same con-ditions the effect order of litter to the roughness coefficient from higher to lower is Populus Linn.litter,Robinia Pseudoacacia Linn.litter,Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.litter and th Poaceae witheredgrasses.The roughness coefficient value of Populus Linn.litter is 0.1995,the roughness coefficientvalue of Robinia Pseudoocacia Linn. litter is 0.1784,the roughness coefficient value of Pinustabulae formis Carr. litter is 0.1297,and the roughness coefficient value of Poaceae withered grassesis 0.0991 while the amount of the litter is 0.200g / cm ̄2(equal 20t/hm ̄2).The result also shows thata limitation of increasing the roughness coefficient value exists by increasing the litter amount. Thetop limitation of the litter amotint is about 0.250~0. 300g /cm ̄2(equal 25~30t/hm ̄2)while the unitwidth flow is about 94ml(m.s).

该文对3种乔木树种枯落物和禾本科枯草的曼宁糙率系数n值,分别进行了室内实验。在特定坡度和流量条件下,糙率系数n值与4种枯落物量均呈现出指数相关关系。实验结果表明,不同树种枯落物对糙率系数n值影响程度各异,其顺序从大到小依次为:杨属树种枯落物、刺槐枯落物、油松枯落物和禾本科枯草。如枯落物数量为0.200g/cm ̄2(相当于20t/hm ̄2)时,杨属树种、刺槐、油松枯落物和禾本科枯草的糙率系数n值分别是:0.1995,0.1784,0.1297,0.0991。研究结果还表明枯落物量和枯草量的增加对糙率系数n值的增大有一定限度,当单宽流量q为94ml/(m.s)时,枯落物量的上限值约为0.250~0.300g/cm ̄2(相当于25~30t/hm ̄2)。

A method for determining the quantity of erosion and moving was discussed in the paper. Duriny erosion the main cause of the variation of moving ratio was the "filling of low-lying lands" in the sloping fields. Contral experiments were conducted on moving of different lengths of slope. It was found that the maximum of runoff ratio Per unit width and the maximum of sand carrying Per unit width sand could be used to discriminate the variation of erosion and moving.Areas of "erosion-moving" erosion-heaping - moving"...

A method for determining the quantity of erosion and moving was discussed in the paper. Duriny erosion the main cause of the variation of moving ratio was the "filling of low-lying lands" in the sloping fields. Contral experiments were conducted on moving of different lengths of slope. It was found that the maximum of runoff ratio Per unit width and the maximum of sand carrying Per unit width sand could be used to discriminate the variation of erosion and moving.Areas of "erosion-moving" erosion-heaping - moving" and " erosion - moving interference"were divided. An exponent function equation for small water sheds was regressed according to the data of moving ratio, length of slope and size of slope.

文章推荐了确定侵蚀、输移量的方法,指出坡耕地侵蚀过程中的"填洼"作用是引起输移比变化的原因,并分析了其变化规律。通过不同坡长的输移变化试验,发现单宽最小径流率qmin和最大含沙量ρmax可判别其侵蚀输移变化,并划分出"侵蚀─输移区"、"侵蚀─堆积─输移区"和"侵蚀─输移挠动区"。对小集水区回归出输移比与坡长、面积的幂函数关系式。

The relationship for hydro dynamic parameters (flow regime, flow velocity, depth and friction factor) as a function of flow discharge and slope gradient was simulated by means of flume experiments. The results demonstrate that when flow depth is less than 0.316 cm, the flow is transitional flow. The flow change to turbulent when flow depth is large than 0.316cm. The flow velocity and depth are mainly controlled by flow discharge, simple linear function can be used for mean velocity and flow depth predicting....

The relationship for hydro dynamic parameters (flow regime, flow velocity, depth and friction factor) as a function of flow discharge and slope gradient was simulated by means of flume experiments. The results demonstrate that when flow depth is less than 0.316 cm, the flow is transitional flow. The flow change to turbulent when flow depth is large than 0.316cm. The flow velocity and depth are mainly controlled by flow discharge, simple linear function can be used for mean velocity and flow depth predicting. Slope gradient has no significant impact on both flow velocity and depth and has influence on friction factor at low flow discharge. However, as discharge increasing, the friction factor will be controlled by discharge again. All these results reveal that there is larger difference exiting in hydrodynamic properties between overland flow and open channel flow, and should be full considered in water erosion mechanism analyzing and model building.

采用变坡水槽研究了坡面流水动力学参数 (流态、流速、水深及阻力系数 )随流量和坡度的变化规律。结果表明 ,坡面流流态与水深密切相关 ,当水流深度小于 0 .316 cm时 ,坡面流呈过渡流 ,水深大于 0 .316 cm时呈紊流流态 ;当坡度为 5~ 2 5°、单宽流量为 0 .6 2 5~ 12 .5× 10 - 3m3/(s· m)时 ,坡面流平均流速和平均水深主要受流量控制 ,坡度的影响并不显著 ,可用简单的线性函数来模拟平均流速、水深与流量和坡度间的关系 (r2分别为 0 .89,0 .78) ;当流量小于 0 .0 0 2 m3/s时 ,坡度对阻力系数的影响较为显著 ,当流量大于 0 .0 0 2 m3/s时 ,阻力系数基本受流量控制 ,随着流量增大 ,阻力系数呈幂函数形式下降。这说明坡面流的水动力学特性与明渠水流存在较大差异 ,在坡面水蚀机理分析、土壤侵蚀物理模型的构造过程中应予以充分考虑。

 
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