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单宽
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  unit width
    The results of runoff scouring experiments show that the relationship between unit width runoff energy consumption and uint width sediment production is Dr=18.672 (ΔE-0.751). The parameter of soil anti-erodibility is 18.672 g/J and the critical energy consumption is 0.751 J/(ms).
    通过室内放水冲刷试验,结果表明,陡坡单宽径流能耗与单宽径流产沙率之间存在以下线性关系:Dr=18.672(ΔE - 0.751),说明土壤的可蚀性参数为18.672 g/J,发生坡面细沟侵蚀的临界径流能耗为0.751 J/(ms)。
短句来源
    The unit width runoff energy consumption increased with the flow discharge increasing but changed in parabola form. The critical slope is between 21 and 24. The energy consumption in the upper section of the steep slope increased with the discharge of flow and slope and decreased in the middle section of the slope but stable in low section.
    坡面单宽径流能耗随流量增大而增加,随坡度变化呈抛物线趋势,临界坡度出现在21和24之间。 坡面上各段面单宽径流能耗均随流量的增大而增加,随着坡度逐渐增加,坡面上部段面能耗渐增,中部段面渐减,下部较稳定。
短句来源
    The uneven natural slope surface has resulted in concentrated runoff, causing the variations of velocity and increased energy of unit width discharge.
    自然坡面的非均匀性导致径流集中 ,由此引起径流流速变化及单宽流量所具有的能量增加。
短句来源
    The possessed energy of unit width discharge is direct proportion with the cube of ratio of original slope width B to width b after runoff concentrated.
    单宽流量所具有的能量 ,与原坡面宽度B和径流集中后宽度b比值的三次方成正比。
短句来源
    The correlations between the hydrodynamic factors of slope flow (including the discharge, flow energy consumption per unit width, flow shear stress, stream power and unit stream power) and soil detachment rate are experimentally studied in a flume. The width of the flume is 100cm, the gradient of the slope is ranging from 3° to 30° and the flow discharge is varied from 2.5l/min to 6.5l/min.
    为了确定何种水蚀动力因子能准确地描述径流剥蚀土壤的过程,本文在坡度为3°到30°和流量为2 5L min到6 5L min范围内采用土槽径流冲刷试验,运用灰色关联分析法,系统地研究了坡面水蚀动力因子(流量、单宽径流能耗、水流剪切力、水流功率和单位水流功率)与土壤剥蚀率之间的关联度。
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    Results by energy consumption implied that there was also linear relation between sediment transportation and energy consumption of unit runoff width: Dr=14.61(ΔE-0.37), which indicated that soil erodibility was 14.61 g/J, with critical energy consumption of 0.37 J/(min·cm).
    根据径流能耗理论的计算结果表明,径流单宽输沙率和单宽径流能耗之间具有如下的线性关系式:Dr=14 61(ΔE-0 37),表明试验的土壤可蚀性参数为14 61g/J,临界单宽径流能耗为0 37J/(min·cm)。
短句来源
    There were similar trends in both observed data and the calculated data by unit runoff power theory,which changed with slope like parabola,and the maximum data appeared at 21° slope.
    实测数据和据单位径流侵蚀功率理论计算的坡面单宽径流侵蚀产沙量表现出了相似的变化规律,两者都随坡度的增加呈抛物线变化,坡面单宽径流侵蚀产沙量的最大值都出现在21°左右,且二者之间具有良好的线性关系。
短句来源
    On the slope of 3°~21°,the average runoff consumption increases with slope,and decreases with slope when the slope gradient is over the critical gradient(21°~24°).
    在3°~21°坡度范围内,坡面径流单宽能耗随坡度的增加而增加,当坡度超过21°时,径流能耗随坡度的增加而降低。
短句来源
    Random roughness increased, while oriented roughness decreased in an exponent function gradually. (3 )Rainfall and runoff.
    (3)降雨径流,随着单宽径流量的增加,随机糙度的变化量递增,随着径流量的增加,这种递增趋势增强;
短句来源
    In central-north area, unit depth runoff yield is highly pertinent to it, the following factor is soil moisture before rainfall, other factors' role is confined by grotto erode.
    在中北部地区,单宽径流量与产沙关系密切,其次是前期含水量,而其他因子均以洞穴侵蚀的影响对产沙的作用受到限制。
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  unit width
Application of the maximum width of the grid and flow rate per unit width of the river results in the number of flow zones in the lateral direction of the river.
      
The peel strength is the first peak force per unit width of bondline required to produce progressive separation, and the peel energy is the amount of energy per unit bonding area associated with a crack opening.
      
Estimates of cross-reef mass transport per unit width ranged from 0.058 to 0.032?m2s?-1.
      
In the strip packing problem (a standard version of the two-dimensional cutting stock problem), the goal is to pack a given set of rectangles into a vertical strip of unit width so as to minimize the total height of the strip needed.
      
It is shown that any plane set of constant unit width contains a semi-circle of radius 1/2, and using this a minimal univeral plane cover is explicitly constructed.
      
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A method for determining the quantity of erosion and moving was discussed in the paper. Duriny erosion the main cause of the variation of moving ratio was the "filling of low-lying lands" in the sloping fields. Contral experiments were conducted on moving of different lengths of slope. It was found that the maximum of runoff ratio Per unit width and the maximum of sand carrying Per unit width sand could be used to discriminate the variation of erosion and moving.Areas of "erosion-moving" erosion-heaping - moving"...

A method for determining the quantity of erosion and moving was discussed in the paper. Duriny erosion the main cause of the variation of moving ratio was the "filling of low-lying lands" in the sloping fields. Contral experiments were conducted on moving of different lengths of slope. It was found that the maximum of runoff ratio Per unit width and the maximum of sand carrying Per unit width sand could be used to discriminate the variation of erosion and moving.Areas of "erosion-moving" erosion-heaping - moving" and " erosion - moving interference"were divided. An exponent function equation for small water sheds was regressed according to the data of moving ratio, length of slope and size of slope.

文章推荐了确定侵蚀、输移量的方法,指出坡耕地侵蚀过程中的"填洼"作用是引起输移比变化的原因,并分析了其变化规律。通过不同坡长的输移变化试验,发现单宽最小径流率qmin和最大含沙量ρmax可判别其侵蚀输移变化,并划分出"侵蚀─输移区"、"侵蚀─堆积─输移区"和"侵蚀─输移挠动区"。对小集水区回归出输移比与坡长、面积的幂函数关系式。

The relationship for hydro dynamic parameters (flow regime, flow velocity, depth and friction factor) as a function of flow discharge and slope gradient was simulated by means of flume experiments. The results demonstrate that when flow depth is less than 0.316 cm, the flow is transitional flow. The flow change to turbulent when flow depth is large than 0.316cm. The flow velocity and depth are mainly controlled by flow discharge, simple linear function can be used for mean velocity and flow depth predicting....

The relationship for hydro dynamic parameters (flow regime, flow velocity, depth and friction factor) as a function of flow discharge and slope gradient was simulated by means of flume experiments. The results demonstrate that when flow depth is less than 0.316 cm, the flow is transitional flow. The flow change to turbulent when flow depth is large than 0.316cm. The flow velocity and depth are mainly controlled by flow discharge, simple linear function can be used for mean velocity and flow depth predicting. Slope gradient has no significant impact on both flow velocity and depth and has influence on friction factor at low flow discharge. However, as discharge increasing, the friction factor will be controlled by discharge again. All these results reveal that there is larger difference exiting in hydrodynamic properties between overland flow and open channel flow, and should be full considered in water erosion mechanism analyzing and model building.

采用变坡水槽研究了坡面流水动力学参数 (流态、流速、水深及阻力系数 )随流量和坡度的变化规律。结果表明 ,坡面流流态与水深密切相关 ,当水流深度小于 0 .316 cm时 ,坡面流呈过渡流 ,水深大于 0 .316 cm时呈紊流流态 ;当坡度为 5~ 2 5°、单宽流量为 0 .6 2 5~ 12 .5× 10 - 3m3/(s· m)时 ,坡面流平均流速和平均水深主要受流量控制 ,坡度的影响并不显著 ,可用简单的线性函数来模拟平均流速、水深与流量和坡度间的关系 (r2分别为 0 .89,0 .78) ;当流量小于 0 .0 0 2 m3/s时 ,坡度对阻力系数的影响较为显著 ,当流量大于 0 .0 0 2 m3/s时 ,阻力系数基本受流量控制 ,随着流量增大 ,阻力系数呈幂函数形式下降。这说明坡面流的水动力学特性与明渠水流存在较大差异 ,在坡面水蚀机理分析、土壤侵蚀物理模型的构造过程中应予以充分考虑。

Firstly, Methods to measure soil erosion and sediment delivery were introduced when The methods were used to calculate the ratio of sediment delivery. With different condition of rain and land utilization, Soil erosion can be calculated through measuring the sediment at the exit transect of the plot (20 meters long and 5 meters wide); sediment delivery can be gained through measuring the sediment reserving at the exit of runoff plot or small water collection area which slope length is more than 20 meters. Then...

Firstly, Methods to measure soil erosion and sediment delivery were introduced when The methods were used to calculate the ratio of sediment delivery. With different condition of rain and land utilization, Soil erosion can be calculated through measuring the sediment at the exit transect of the plot (20 meters long and 5 meters wide); sediment delivery can be gained through measuring the sediment reserving at the exit of runoff plot or small water collection area which slope length is more than 20 meters. Then After 45 group data from runoff plot 30, 40 and 60 meters long, slope gradient 9% for 9 years were analysed, rate of the minimum runoff unit width and the maximum sediment may use to discriminate the comparative relationship between erosion and sediment delivery, e.g. the ratio of sediment delivery. According to these parameter , the erosive delivery status was divided in to three patterns: erosion-delivery plot erosion-sediment trap-delivery plot and erosion-de livery and disturbance plot. The formula for the critical value among the different plot is pmax - 11. 96 + 0. 117qmin and qmin - 8. 187ρmax - 85. 676。 By measuring sediment delivery from different area (0.5hm2 -41.3hm2) and slope length (30m-965m) water-collected plots and comparing erosion amount from standard plot, sediment delivery ratio was obtained. Equation between sediment delivery ratio (SDR ) and slope length or water-collected area is SDR = 2.85L-0.306 or SDR = 0.735A-0.151 , The equation is convenient for rapid calculating SDR. Finally, effects of vegelation cover, soil moisture and mans activity and other fators on the sediment delivery ratio were also discussed.

文章首先推荐了计算泥沙输移比SDR时,所需侵蚀量、输移量的量测方法:侵蚀量用坡长为20 m(水平距)、宽5 m的直线坡,在不同降雨及土地利用下,通过小区出口断面的泥沙量;输移量为坡长大于20m的径流小区或小集水区出口处的拦蓄量。然后通过黄土塬区坡面坡度为9%的30 m、40 m、60 m径流小区9年野外实验所得45组有效数据的分析,发现单宽最小径流率qmin和最大含沙量ρmin可判别坡面泥沙侵蚀与输移的对比关系,即输移比SDR,并依据这些参数值,可将侵蚀输移状态划分为“侵蚀——输移区”,“侵蚀——堆积——输移区”和“侵蚀——输移挠动区”3个侵蚀输移状态类型区。同时通过研究给出了各区之间过渡转换临界值的计算公式,即ρmax=11.96+0.117qmin或qmin=8.187ρmax=-85.676。并通过对21条塬面不同面积(0.5hm2-41.3hm2)、坡长(30 m-965 m)小集水区淤积(输移量)的测量,将测量值与标准小区侵蚀量作对比,计算出各自的输移比SDR,并分别建立了SDR与坡长L、SDR与集水面积A的关系式,即SDR=2.85L-0.306和SDR=0.735A-0.151,为快...

文章首先推荐了计算泥沙输移比SDR时,所需侵蚀量、输移量的量测方法:侵蚀量用坡长为20 m(水平距)、宽5 m的直线坡,在不同降雨及土地利用下,通过小区出口断面的泥沙量;输移量为坡长大于20m的径流小区或小集水区出口处的拦蓄量。然后通过黄土塬区坡面坡度为9%的30 m、40 m、60 m径流小区9年野外实验所得45组有效数据的分析,发现单宽最小径流率qmin和最大含沙量ρmin可判别坡面泥沙侵蚀与输移的对比关系,即输移比SDR,并依据这些参数值,可将侵蚀输移状态划分为“侵蚀——输移区”,“侵蚀——堆积——输移区”和“侵蚀——输移挠动区”3个侵蚀输移状态类型区。同时通过研究给出了各区之间过渡转换临界值的计算公式,即ρmax=11.96+0.117qmin或qmin=8.187ρmax=-85.676。并通过对21条塬面不同面积(0.5hm2-41.3hm2)、坡长(30 m-965 m)小集水区淤积(输移量)的测量,将测量值与标准小区侵蚀量作对比,计算出各自的输移比SDR,并分别建立了SDR与坡长L、SDR与集水面积A的关系式,即SDR=2.85L-0.306和SDR=0.735A-0.151,为快速估算塬面小集水区泥沙输移比.SDR值提供了方便。最后,分析了植被覆盖、土壤含水状况、人为活动等其它因素对泥沙输移比SDR的影响。

 
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