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蒸汽
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     The Designing Principles of The Steam--Hot Water Boiler QXL28200--2. 5/180/110
     QXL28200—2.5/180/110蒸汽—热水联产锅炉设计原理
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     Study on Optimum Condition of Conventional Steam-Dehumidification Combined Drying Wood
     常规蒸汽—除湿联合干燥木材匹配条件的研究
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     Experiment and analysis on energy consume of steam-heat pump combined drying wood
     蒸汽—热泵联合干燥木材能耗的实验测试与分析
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     Discusses the requirements for monitoring and management of the scopes from boiler houses for heating, steam water and water water heat exchangers, small scale heating networks to large scale district heating, the related hardware configuration and the approaches to realise the required functions.
     顺序介绍了供暖用热水锅炉房、蒸汽—水和水—水换热站及小区热网的监测控制及大中规模的热电联产集中供热系统的监测控制与管理。 每部分内容中先讨论其测控及管理要求,然后讨论与此要求相适应的测控点及相应的硬件配置,最后再探讨实现这些功能的一些软件算法。
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     Solution to problem of freezing in steam-air ham-mer
     蒸汽—空气两用锤结冰问题的解决方法
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     Steam Flow Meter Model Selection
     蒸汽流量表的选型
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     THE VAPOUR PRESSURES OF SUBSTANCES
     物质的蒸汽
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High-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded willow without prior water washing
      
A laboratory reactor equipped with a screw press was used for the hydrolysis of steam-SO2-exploded willowSalix caprea by a composition ofTrichoderma reesei andAspergillus foetidus enzyme preparations at high substrate concentration.
      
Enzyme recovery in high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated willow: Requirements for the enzyme composition
      
In order to reduce the total enzyme consumption in high-solids static hydrolysis of nonwashed steam-exploded willowSalix caprea by mixed cellulase ofTrichoderma reesei + Aspergillus foetidus, two different approaches were proposed.
      
Results are given of calculations of the position of the points of support of the segments of a steam-turbine radial bearing ensuring a minimum of the friction loss.
      
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Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification...

Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification methods, the Chinese coals available with ultimate analysis or proximate analysis data can be easily classified into the following different kinds as known internationally: -anthracite (A), semi-athracite (T), semi-bituminous ( C), coking coal (k), steaming fat coal ( ), gas coal ( ), long flame (candle) coal ( ) and lignite coal ( ), as tabulated on Table - 4. Ⅲ. The Properties of Chinese Coals. (а) The composition of the Chinese Coals - with the exception of ash and sulfur which vary irregularly, the other constituents. like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and analytical moisture vary regularly with the variation of the vodatile matter on combustible basis V in the different stage of carbonization. (б) The Reltation between the ultimate analysis and proximate analysis for the Chinese Coals- In the bituminous coal region, the data of proximate analysis can be transferred to the ultimate analysis proximately according to the straight line formula, as for the bituinous coal. The other constituents like H, O and N, S can also be obtained by the straight line formulas as shown on the graph. (в) The Heating Value of Chinese Coals - The Heating Value of Chinese Coals; when only ultimate analysis data is available, can be checked by using the Mendeleef formula; when Duly the proximate analysis data is available, the heahng value can be checked by the Goutal Formula. When illers is only the ultimate data without any bomb calorimeter, the heating value can be obtained by the following empirical formulas:(p) The Coking Property of the Chinese Coals---The ebbing property can be represent6d by' foe coking coeffident as suggested by the author, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen on combustible. basis (%). With the exception of anthraede, semi--anthracite and liana, ' which will have the ash in powderform, when burned, the other bituminous coals like (1) Semi--bituminous and part of the coking coal, when Vr- 16 ~ 24 7o and (%) = 0.90 1 .8, the ash after combustion will become softly caked; (2) for coking coal, Steaming fat Hr coal and gas coal, when Vr~25-47 and M~0. 58-1 .2, the ash after combustion will become strongly caked; (3) FOr gas coal and long flame coal, when Vr~31 ~46 ac and aam: =0. 34-0. 50, the ash will become softly caked. f {if) The Combustion Characteristics of Chinese Coals -- The combustion characteristics vary with the kind of coal. Which kind of coal is suitable for what kind of industrial use and which type of furnace is suitable for burning what kind' of 'coal,. all depends uPOn the rank, composition and combustion charact6rislics of the coal. F6, economy, it is necessary >to burn the poor quality coal nearby and the problem of caking inside the furnace resulting from poor quality coal muSt be properly solved. ' (in) The ash Fusion point of Chinese Coals -- The ash composition affects the fusion point. greatly. The change in ash composition will of feet the fusion poillt. Thus increasing the met,ilie oxides in the coal ash liko FeZO3, CaO and MAO ate. will raduce the fusion point and will fadlitate the ash disposal in fluid form. On the other hand, whother increasing 'the kaolin (fire clay) in the ash composition will raise the ash fusion point or not is a problem worthy for further investigation and research. ' '. It may be reaseonably assumed as suggested by the auther that the coal ash is mainly consisted of kaolin (Al.O, ZFios ZHZO) + free SiOZ + different motailic odddes (FavOr, CaO and MgO, etc ). When coal is burned, the free SiOZ will combine with some of the metallic

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对...

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则可用古?

In present experiment the desorption of adsorbed ammonium by soilsand clay minerals from ammonium chloride and ammonium acetate solutionsof various concentrations and at different pH values were studied in detail.The samples used include a lateritic red soil(SiO_2/R_2O_3 of clay 1.05),a redsoil(SiO_2/R_2O_3 1.63),a podsolized yellow soil(SiO_2/R_2O_3 1.59),a betoniticclay and a kaolinitic clay.Among the conclusions obtained from the experiments,the followingsare of outstanding significance. 1.The adsorbed ammonium...

In present experiment the desorption of adsorbed ammonium by soilsand clay minerals from ammonium chloride and ammonium acetate solutionsof various concentrations and at different pH values were studied in detail.The samples used include a lateritic red soil(SiO_2/R_2O_3 of clay 1.05),a redsoil(SiO_2/R_2O_3 1.63),a podsolized yellow soil(SiO_2/R_2O_3 1.59),a betoniticclay and a kaolinitic clay.Among the conclusions obtained from the experiments,the followingsare of outstanding significance. 1.The adsorbed ammonium of soils or clay minerals may be dividedinto two parts——the“easily releasible ammonium”which can be removedreadily by steam distillation,and the“un-easily releasible ammonium”which can only be replaced by distilling with a strongly alkaline solution.2.The fixation of the easily releasible ammonium by soil seems to beinduced by the molecular adsorption of sesqui-oxides,the amount of whichincreases with the increase of pH value of the medium solution,Purebetonitic and kaolinitic clays possess only very low abilty to fixed the easilyreleasible ammonium and the pH of the medium solution gives no effect tothe rate of adsorption.3.About 29-45% of the easily releasible ammonium can be removedfrom the soil by dehydration over CaCl_2 and thus seems to belong to physicaladsorption.4.In an equilibrium system the relationship between the amount ofeasily releasible ammonium and the concentration of ammonium salt solution,at concentrations lower than 0.1 N,appears to obey Freundlich's equation.5.The relationship between the amount of easily releasible ammoniumand the pH value of an ammonium saturated soil can be expressed by thefollowing equation;pH=aD+b,where“D”denotes the amount of easily releasible ammonium in m.e.per100 gms of soil,“a”is a constant which equals 0.88 under experimentalcondition for all tested soils,and“b”,the pH value of an ammonium-soilwhen the amount of easily releasible ammonium of that soil equals to zero.

1.土壤的吸收性铵可分为两部分,一部分易在蒸汽蒸馏情况迅速解吸。称之为“易解吸性铵”;另一部分则只能在强碱性条件下被蒸馏出来,称为“非解吸性铵”。2.对于红黄壤,“易解吸性铵”可能是R_2O_3引起的一种物理性吸附,其吸附量随介质的pH 值的增高而迅速增大。高岭土和斑脱土的“易解吸性铵”量很低,且与介质pH值无关。所有试样的“非解吸性铵”均与介质pH 无关。3.“易解吸性铵”中有29—45%可以在干燥器(放CaCl_2)中因脱水而损失。4.红壤的“易解吸性铵”量,与电解质浓度(低于0.1N 时)的关系,完全服从Freun-dlich 方程式。其“非解吸性铵”则与浓度无关。5.铵质土的pH 与“易解吸性铵”含量具有一定关系,它可表示为:pH=αD+b;其中D 为“易解吸性铵”的每百克土壤中毫当量数;α为常数,在本试验中对于红壤标本其值为0.88,b 相当于“易解吸性铵”数值为零时铵质土的pH 值。6.用於洗涤的酒精浓度的变化,对于斑脱土的吸收性铵的总量不起影响,但对于土壤试样,则随酒精浓度的降低而减少其吸收性铵的总量,而其减少的部分,几乎全为“易解吸性铵”。

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作者建议了一个蒸汽燃气联合循环,它与一般的两级压缩、中间冷却、两级燃烧及膨胀,并具有回热设备的纯燃气轮机循环相比,具有三大优点:1.在同样的回热器面积的基础上,其它设备要小些,而轴上效率则要高得多;2.在局部负荷时,效率要好些;3.轴上效率受到压力损耗的影响较小,因此对于使用固体燃料更有希望.作者认为在燃烧低质液体燃料及不装备笨重的锅炉设备和大量冷却水的条件下,它的效率是现时所有循环中最高的.因此,这个循环,最适用于机车动力机,其效率可达30%(轴上)或以上.以低质液体燃料来工作时,作者认为所建议的循环,基本上已成熟到试行设计或试制试用机车的阶段.要扩大这个循环的应用,最好能使用固体燃料,由于优点(3),比之一般的纯燃气轮循环,它的希望比较的大,困难比较容易克服,作者在附录中,对于如何使用固体燃料,也作了一些讨论,但关于后一方面的问题,需要作若干实验来摸索和证实.一、现有基本燃气轮机循环的简述,其热效率及其与内燃机及蒸汽透平厂的比较二、现有的各种特殊类型的燃气轮机厂的简述,内燃机皮蒸汽动力厂的联合装置三、所建议的蒸汽燃气联合循环装置四、所建议的循环装置的分析和比...

作者建议了一个蒸汽燃气联合循环,它与一般的两级压缩、中间冷却、两级燃烧及膨胀,并具有回热设备的纯燃气轮机循环相比,具有三大优点:1.在同样的回热器面积的基础上,其它设备要小些,而轴上效率则要高得多;2.在局部负荷时,效率要好些;3.轴上效率受到压力损耗的影响较小,因此对于使用固体燃料更有希望.作者认为在燃烧低质液体燃料及不装备笨重的锅炉设备和大量冷却水的条件下,它的效率是现时所有循环中最高的.因此,这个循环,最适用于机车动力机,其效率可达30%(轴上)或以上.以低质液体燃料来工作时,作者认为所建议的循环,基本上已成熟到试行设计或试制试用机车的阶段.要扩大这个循环的应用,最好能使用固体燃料,由于优点(3),比之一般的纯燃气轮循环,它的希望比较的大,困难比较容易克服,作者在附录中,对于如何使用固体燃料,也作了一些讨论,但关于后一方面的问题,需要作若干实验来摸索和证实.一、现有基本燃气轮机循环的简述,其热效率及其与内燃机及蒸汽透平厂的比较二、现有的各种特殊类型的燃气轮机厂的简述,内燃机皮蒸汽动力厂的联合装置三、所建议的蒸汽燃气联合循环装置四、所建议的循环装置的分析和比较五、现有的使用固体燃料的方法和应用于所建议的联合循环的讨论六、所建议循环应用于机车的某些估计七、如何作再进一步的研究及小结八、参考文献九、后记

 
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