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系统运行人员
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  system operators
     Optimization between the two networks is important for both system operators and market participants.
     不管是对系统运行人员还是市场参与者来说,存在于两个网络之间的优化问题都很重要。
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     First through comparison of voltage stability tangent vector index, the power loss sensitivity index as well as the singular value index, then makes the system operators fixes their voltage stability monitoring and prevention stress on the weak nodes and weak area.
     首先通过对电压稳定的切向量指标、网损灵敏度指标以及奇异值指标的分析比较,确定系统的弱节点、弱区域,使得系统运行人员对系统的电压稳定的监控和预防侧重在系统电压稳定的弱区域。
短句来源
     With the emergence of competitive electricity power markets,reactive power ancillary services or reactive power markets have attracted more and more attention from researchers and system operators all over the world.
     随着竞争电力市场的出现,无功辅助服务或无功电力市场吸引了研究人员和系统运行人员越来越多的关注。
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     In view of the insufficiency in traditional examination algorithm of AGC operation,the article proposed that when AGC was put into operation,we did the real-time determination and the computation of the AGC unit's adjustment speed and the adjustment precision,and considered the influence of AGC unit's response time to the speed and the discrimination of system personnel and unit responsibility.
     针对传统AGC机组运行考核算法的不足,在AGC投入时对机组的调节速率和调节精度进行实时的测定与计算,并且考虑了AGC机组的响应时间对调节速率的影响以及系统运行人员与机组责任的区分;
短句来源
     How to design standard substation grids in limited, non-uniform, high soil resistivity regions using suitable decreasing resistance method to keep the safe and reliable operation of the power system stuffs and devices is crucial.
     多数变电站建于土壤状况复杂地区,如何根据实际的不均匀土壤,结合新的施工工艺,在面积有限、土壤电阻率较高地区设计出符合国家规程规定的接地系统是保障电力系统运行人员和设备安全的一项重要工作。
短句来源
     In power markets ancillary service is usually centrally handled. The system operator determines the required reserve capacity and purchases it from the reserve suppliers.
     电力市场中的备用容量辅助服务一般都是集中处理的 ,由系统运行人员确定并向备用容量供应商购买所需的备用容量 ,再把相应的费用分摊给用户。
短句来源
     The vast amounts of information about the power system operation state can be present in an intuitive and quick manner by the visualization technology.
     可视化技术可以将电力系统运行状态的大量信息以直观、简捷的方式显示给系统运行人员
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     With the emphasizing on the stability of the electric power system, more and more researching and applications for phasor measurement system have done by people.
     随着电力系统运行人员对电力系统稳定性的重视,相角测量系统的研究和应用越来越普遍。
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     The system is dependable.
     该系统运行可靠。
短句来源
     3. System running.
     3、系统运行
短句来源
     Positioning System of Personnel Under Mine
     井下人员定位系统
短句来源
     Qualification of NPP Operations Personnel
     核电厂运行人员资格
短句来源
     DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE FOR OPERATOR TRAINING SIMULATION SYSTEM IN POWER PLANT
     电厂电气运行人员培训仿真系统软件开发
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  system operators
Covariant multipole polarization operators for a particle with finite nonzero mass and arbitrary spin are constructed by considering the usual multipole expansion of polarization matrices as the rest system operators.
      
During online operation and for operational planning the European transmission system operators have detailed information about current and future states of their own network.
      
An analytic solution for the system operators is obtained.
      
Many simple constructions or operating procedures are available that can bring considerable convenience to farmers and irrigation delivery system operators.
      
For this purpose one can apply either averaging with respect to a nonquantum parameter or reduce the algebra of joint-system operators (i.e., pass from an algebraA of operators to a subalgebraA0).
      
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A knowledge based system is proposed for the short term load fore-casting. To benefit from the experf knowledge and experience of the system opera-tor,many different load shapes,each with different means of load Calculations, are established.The special load types considered by the expert system include the ex-tremely lovv load levels during the week of the Chinese New Year, the special load characteristics of the days following a tropical storm or a typhoon,the partial shut-down of certain factories on saturdays...

A knowledge based system is proposed for the short term load fore-casting. To benefit from the experf knowledge and experience of the system opera-tor,many different load shapes,each with different means of load Calculations, are established.The special load types considered by the expert system include the ex-tremely lovv load levels during the week of the Chinese New Year, the special load characteristics of the days following a tropical storm or a typhoon,the partial shut-down of certain factories on saturdays and the special events Caused by a Holiday on Friday or on Monday,etc. The characteristic feature of the proposed knowledge-based expert system is that it is easy to add new information and new rules to the knowledge base.

本文介绍一个短期负荷预计的知识系统。为了借助专家知识和系统运行人员的经验,需建立负荷计算中具有不同意义的许多不同负荷形态的每一种形式。由专家系统考虑的专门日类型包括:春节一周中极低的负荷;暴风雨或台风日的特殊负荷特性;星期六某些工厂部分停产;由于节假日导致星期五和星期一特别方式等等。所推荐专家知识库系统的特,或是容易对知识库加入新信息和新规则。

In power markets ancillary service is usually centrally handled. The system operator determines the required reserve capacity and purchases it from the reserve suppliers. The corresponding cost is allocated to consumers. This approach may lead to inefficiency and gaming in ancillary service markets. Is there any way that individual consumers can treat the reserve capacity through a decentralized decision making approach? If so, how should each consumer make optimal ancillary service plan? With a decentralized...

In power markets ancillary service is usually centrally handled. The system operator determines the required reserve capacity and purchases it from the reserve suppliers. The corresponding cost is allocated to consumers. This approach may lead to inefficiency and gaming in ancillary service markets. Is there any way that individual consumers can treat the reserve capacity through a decentralized decision making approach? If so, how should each consumer make optimal ancillary service plan? With a decentralized approach, where each consumer tries to maximize his own benefit, could the maximal social welfare be obtained as its centralized counterpart? In this paper, conceptual study results on these issues are presented. Two cases are investigated. The first case aims at reducing electricity interruption risk of a specified consumer via asking a power supplier to improve generation reliability. The provider insurance theory is introduced to guarantee the improvement of generation reliability. In the second case, there are three participants in the market: a power supplier, a consumer (also the insured) and a reserve capacity provider (also the insurer). Reserve capacity is traded and the insurance policy used to enforce the liability of reserve capacity provider. It is shown that in both cases, once the consumer purchases a well defined insurance policy, the latter will induce incentives for the insurer to provide the required level of reliability improvement or reserve capacity. With insurance policy, the consumer can reduce his expected outage loss and shift his risk to the risk neutral insurer. It is proven that the suggested decentralized approach can yield maximal social welfare as well.

电力市场中的备用容量辅助服务一般都是集中处理的 ,由系统运行人员确定并向备用容量供应商购买所需的备用容量 ,再把相应的费用分摊给用户。这种方法很难保证辅助服务的高效率 ,并会导致辅助服务市场中的投机现象。备用容量可以通过分散决策的方法由每个用户自主决定吗 ?如果可以 ,怎样使每个用户制定最优的辅助服务购买计划 ?如果采用分散的方法 ,即每个用户都尽可能最大化自己的利益 ,能否使其实现全社会效益最大 ?文中就这些问题做了基础性探讨 ,并针对两种情况进行了建模和分析 :1通过要求电能供应商提高发电可靠性来减小用户电能被中断的风险 ,其中采用了“供给者保险”( provider insurance)方法 ;2假设市场有电能供应商、用户 (被保险者 )和备用容量供应商 (承保者 ) 3个参与者 ,用户和备用容量供应商就备用容量进行交易 ,并以两者间的保险条款促使备用容量供应商履行其责任。两种情况的研究均表明 ,一旦用户购买了适当定义的保险单 ,就会对承保者引入约束和激励 ,使其为自身利益而积极地提供用户所要求的可靠性或备用容量。同时 ,购买保险还可以使用户减少预期的停电损失 ,将风险转移到中立的承保者身上...

电力市场中的备用容量辅助服务一般都是集中处理的 ,由系统运行人员确定并向备用容量供应商购买所需的备用容量 ,再把相应的费用分摊给用户。这种方法很难保证辅助服务的高效率 ,并会导致辅助服务市场中的投机现象。备用容量可以通过分散决策的方法由每个用户自主决定吗 ?如果可以 ,怎样使每个用户制定最优的辅助服务购买计划 ?如果采用分散的方法 ,即每个用户都尽可能最大化自己的利益 ,能否使其实现全社会效益最大 ?文中就这些问题做了基础性探讨 ,并针对两种情况进行了建模和分析 :1通过要求电能供应商提高发电可靠性来减小用户电能被中断的风险 ,其中采用了“供给者保险”( provider insurance)方法 ;2假设市场有电能供应商、用户 (被保险者 )和备用容量供应商 (承保者 ) 3个参与者 ,用户和备用容量供应商就备用容量进行交易 ,并以两者间的保险条款促使备用容量供应商履行其责任。两种情况的研究均表明 ,一旦用户购买了适当定义的保险单 ,就会对承保者引入约束和激励 ,使其为自身利益而积极地提供用户所要求的可靠性或备用容量。同时 ,购买保险还可以使用户减少预期的停电损失 ,将风险转移到中立的承保者身上。文中还证明了所提出的分散决策方法能够达到社会效益最优。

In power markets, ancillary service is usually centrally handled. The system operator will determine the required reserve capacity and purchase it from the reserve suppliers. And the corresponding cost is allocated to the consumers. This approach lacks customers' choices and may lead to inefficiency. In the market environment, the decentralized decision making approach should be recommended so as to use the "invisible hand" of markets to achieve market equilibrium and efficiency. In this paper, we suggest...

In power markets, ancillary service is usually centrally handled. The system operator will determine the required reserve capacity and purchase it from the reserve suppliers. And the corresponding cost is allocated to the consumers. This approach lacks customers' choices and may lead to inefficiency. In the market environment, the decentralized decision making approach should be recommended so as to use the "invisible hand" of markets to achieve market equilibrium and efficiency. In this paper, we suggest two approaches to procure operating reserve. They are contract based approach and pool based approach. In the two approaches, a theory of insurance policy is introduced to make optimal decentralized decision possible, improving the dispatch of reserve capacity and reducing the risk of loss of power supply to consumers. A numerical example is utilized to illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested approaches. It is proven that under certain conditions the pool based approach is more cost effective than the contract based approach and should be adopted in the deregulated electricity markets.

电力市场中的辅助服务一般都是集中处理的。系统运行人员负责确定并购买所需的备用容量 ,再把相应的费用分摊给用户。备用容量决策一般基于经验和规程 ,不进行优化计算 ,所以这种做法可能导致低效率。在市场环境中 ,应鼓励采用分散决策方法 ,以便通过市场的“无形之手”达到市场均衡点和市场效率。文中提出了两种分散决策方法来确定备用容量 ,即分别基于合同和联营体的分散决策方法。这两种方法在实现中均应用保险理论来引导备用容量的最优分散决策 ,并同时减少用户的停电损失。证明了在一定条件下 ,基于联营体的方法更加有效 ,可以在电力市场中考虑采用

 
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