Then the cross-section damage index is defined, including ordinary concrete cross-section, prestressed concrete cross-section and unloading concrete cross-section.

Based on the basic theory of element modal strain energy change and structure shape change before and after damage, the damage index was put forward to locate structure damage, the basic formulas are obtained firstly to identify the damage location and discriminate qualitatively the damage degree for beams and plates, and the program is compiled in calculating the damage index for beams and plates.

Hence, for such kind of damage, using the new damage indicator, namely, displacement integration, to identify structural damage should be paid more attention.

Based on the basic theory of element modal strain energy change and structure shape change before and after damage, the damage index was put forward to locate structure damage, the basic formulas are obtained firstly to identify the damage location and discriminate qualitatively the damage degree for beams and plates, and the program is compiled in calculating the damage index for beams and plates.

The damage-repair process is described by Renewal Process. The damage index of a member is expressed in terms of the ratio of maximum curvature to the ultimate one at the position of plastic hinge.

Selecting the branch of part measured point from modal parameter, this paper deduces the damaged index which can detect the possible damaged location of the cable-stayed bridge deck and identifies the damaged region and degree for Yonghe Bridge.

The general relation between the damage and strain of the beam cross-section is set up and the stress-strain curves of cross-section are made, through the analysis on cross-section balance.

The concrete damage of simply supported beams can be effectively assessed by these two defining damage methods. The results show that both methods are feasible and close to reality by analyzing the whole damage process of simply supported prestressed RC beams and RC beams which have different reinforced ratios and loads.

3.This paper sets up the finite element model of continuous-beam bridge tocompare of two index——curvature mode difference and flexibility curvaturedifference. In the paper we can find that flexibility curvature difference is an advanced and applied index.

A damage index, used to identify possible locations and corresponding severities of local damage, is defined and expressed in terms of modal displacements that are obtained numerically from mode shapes of the undamaged and the damaged structures.

Based on a small damage assumption, a damage index equation is revealedn the context of elasticity.

It turns out that the resulting damage index equation inherently suffers from singularities near inflection nodes.

With the aid of the singular value decomposition technique, the solution to the damage index equation is achieved in the Haar wavelet space.

Next, the physical desired solution to the damage index equation is reconstructed from the one in the wavelet space.

A means of using a semiconductor film element as a fatigue-damage indicator is substantiated.

One damage indicator is a shift of the optimum length for peak active tension, in the direction of longer muscle lengths.

A novel statistical algorithm was proposed to extract a damage indicator by computing mode shapes of vibration testing before and after damage in timbers.

The proposed damage indicator, computed from the first two flexural modes, was capable of detecting all damage locations.

After a review of the literature on the prognosis of ductile fracture, a damage indicator is developed which is based on micromechanical results and adapted to experiments.

With the aid of the singular value decomposition technique, the solution to the damage index equation is achieved in the Haar wavelet space.

Next, the physical desired solution to the damage index equation is reconstructed from the one in the wavelet space.

The regressions of yield loss on the damage index were used to separate the genotypes into four groups according to the possession of antibiosis and/or tolerance mechanisms.

Whereas Bi and the bitterness intensifier genes are not related to the resistance factors acceptance and oviposition, they are related to resistance or tolerance as measured by the damage index.

Next, the damage accumulation problem is dealt with and two different proposals for the damage index are given.

From the point of view of the vehicle passive safety,this article describes thehuman body injury criteria,the dummies existed today and the mechanical and mathematicalmOdels used in research work.Several popular computer simulation softwares are also included.This article can be used for reference in the research and development of the dummiesand the three-dimensional computer simulation softwares in China.

A computer method is proposed to determine the reliability of bridge when impacted by a sailing ship in this paper. The local damage distribution in the bridge structure caused by the ship impact is calculated by nonlinear FEM analysis. The local damage is represented by the density of material damage in the local area. The material damage, which is a function of the plastic strain and the plastic strain rate, is included in the bridge material model. The calculated local damage data, test data and the historical...

A computer method is proposed to determine the reliability of bridge when impacted by a sailing ship in this paper. The local damage distribution in the bridge structure caused by the ship impact is calculated by nonlinear FEM analysis. The local damage is represented by the density of material damage in the local area. The material damage, which is a function of the plastic strain and the plastic strain rate, is included in the bridge material model. The calculated local damage data, test data and the historical damage data of the bridge are analyzed by knowledge-based expert system to give the global damage index of the bridge structure. The global damage index is used to stand for the current safety status of the bridge. If the global damage index is higher than a given critical value, safety control on the bridge is advised to take or the bridge is simply discarded. Otherwise, the damaged bridge could continue to be in service, and its future safety level is predicted by assuming that some possible disasters such as being impacted by sailing ships, earthquake, etc are encountered in future. If the predicted future safety level is low, the damaged bridge should be repaired in advance. Finally, the Qing Jiang Gao Ba bridge was analyzed as an example to show the effectiveness of the method.

A damage localization for the Tsing Ma bridge deck is studied through a business program in the paper.A two-stage method is employed for the damage localization.In the first stage,the Tsing Ma bridge deck is divided into several segments.A damage index is derived from modal components for indicating the damaged region.That means to identify where is the damaged deck segment.In the second stage,the artificial neural network is used to identify damaged member in a damaged segment.The results show that the proposed...

A damage localization for the Tsing Ma bridge deck is studied through a business program in the paper.A two-stage method is employed for the damage localization.In the first stage,the Tsing Ma bridge deck is divided into several segments.A damage index is derived from modal components for indicating the damaged region.That means to identify where is the damaged deck segment.In the second stage,the artificial neural network is used to identify damaged member in a damaged segment.The results show that the proposed method is feasible for the damage localization of a deck structure.