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  famine
The Dutch Famine and schizophrenia spectrum disorders
      
Unlike other famines, the Dutch famine struck at a precisely circumscribed time and place, and in a society able to document the timing and severity of the nutritional deprivation as well as the effects on fertility and health.
      
Because the Dutch maintained comprehensive military and health records, it was possible to compare the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in adulthood for birth cohorts exposed versus those unexposed to prenatal famine.
      
Early prenatal famine was found to be specifically and robustly associated with each of three conditions: (1) congenital anomalies of the central nervous system, (2) schizophrenia, and (3) schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders.
      
Persons born in December 1945 were generally conceived at the absolute peak of the famine (March-April 1945).
      
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Abstract In anti-Janpanese war,common salt needed by Guizhou was imported from Sichuan. Its route of salt transports was nearly 3, 978 kilometers. The danger route was nearly 2, 569 kilometers. The transport cost increased gradualy. This was the limit to the quantity of transportation and sale.

贵州偏处西南,交通不便。抗日战争时期的食盐运输,基本停留在人背马驮、木船板车的落后水平上。全省所需食盐,主要仰给于川盐的进口。其运销路线,系由仁、綦、涪、永四岸分道转运至贵阳、安顺、思南、威宁等省内经销点,全程达3978公里,其中崎岖险峨之山径、滩礁林立的河道.即占2569公里。陆运力夫和水运纤工的平均日行程仅12公里。营运周期,一般均长达两三月以至五六月,仅途耗一项,即超过10%.运费支付相当于购进价的60%以上,致使运销成本增加,严重制约运销量。从1939至1941年,全省平均人日食盐供应量仅三钱而已。此乃贵州长期盐的主要所在。

The Island of Hainan has many other names inhistory, according to its attribution, can be divided into eight types:1.come from ancient original inhabitants of the Island of Hainan, as Daner;2.come from the names of two local advanced political powers of the Island of Hainan, as Zhuya, Daner, Danya;3.come from the political power which govern all the Island of Hainan, as Zhuya, Yazhou, Qiongzhou, Qiongguan, Qiong, Qiongtai, Qiongyao, Qiongzhoufu, Qiongjun, Qiongdian, Zhuyazhou, Qiongdao, Qionghai; 4.come from...

The Island of Hainan has many other names inhistory, according to its attribution, can be divided into eight types:1.come from ancient original inhabitants of the Island of Hainan, as Daner;2.come from the names of two local advanced political powers of the Island of Hainan, as Zhuya, Daner, Danya;3.come from the political power which govern all the Island of Hainan, as Zhuya, Yazhou, Qiongzhou, Qiongguan, Qiong, Qiongtai, Qiongyao, Qiongzhoufu, Qiongjun, Qiongdian, Zhuyazhou, Qiongdao, Qionghai; 4.come from the Island of Hainan which located lonely in the South China Sea and separated far from motherland continent, as Hainazhou, Haiwai; 5. come from the Island of Hainan which located far in the motherland souther frontier, as Zhuyin, Nanji, Nanhuang, Yanhuang; 6.come from the Island of Hainan which was rich in perfume in ancient times, as Hiangzhou;7.come from the Island of Hainan which is important in strategic and economic status, as Nanmingqidian, Baodao, Nantianyizhu; 8.come from the Island of Hainan which was prosperous in the humanities during Ming Dynasty, as Haibinzoulu.

历史上海南岛有众多别称 ,按其属性 ,可分为八种类型 :一是由本岛古代土著居民的习俗而得名者 ,有儋耳 ;二是由本岛历史上最早设立的两个地方政权名称而得名者 ,有“珠崖、儋耳”、儋崖 ;三是由统辖全岛的政权名称而得名者 ,有珠崖、崖州、琼州、琼管、琼、琼崖、琼台、琼瑶、琼州府、琼郡、琼甸、朱崖洲、琼岛、琼海 ;四是由本岛孤悬南海和远离祖国大陆而得名者 ,有海南州、海外 ;五是由本岛远处祖国南陲而得名者 ,有朱垠、南极、南、炎 ;六是由本岛古代盛产香料而得名者 ,有香洲 ;七是由本岛战略地位和经济地位的重要而得名者 ,有南溟奇甸、宝岛、“南天一柱”和“南海明珠” ;八是由本岛明代人文昌盛而得名者 ,有海滨邹鲁。本文主要通过上述各个方面探讨海南岛诸别称的由来

The paper having reestimated the number of people lost in the Great Drought in Shanxi in the Early Period of Emperor Guangxu's Reign in the Qing Dynasty, indicates the influences of population loss on the con- temporary economy and society of Shanxi.

文章就“丁戊奇”导致山西人口亡失的情况进行了重新估计,进而说明人口亡失对近代山西社会经济发展的影响。

 
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