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  famine
The Dutch Famine and schizophrenia spectrum disorders
      
Unlike other famines, the Dutch famine struck at a precisely circumscribed time and place, and in a society able to document the timing and severity of the nutritional deprivation as well as the effects on fertility and health.
      
Because the Dutch maintained comprehensive military and health records, it was possible to compare the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in adulthood for birth cohorts exposed versus those unexposed to prenatal famine.
      
Early prenatal famine was found to be specifically and robustly associated with each of three conditions: (1) congenital anomalies of the central nervous system, (2) schizophrenia, and (3) schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders.
      
Persons born in December 1945 were generally conceived at the absolute peak of the famine (March-April 1945).
      
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From 1860 to 1864, the grain supply in the Heavenly Capital of the Taipings (Nanking) was mainly from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Shanghai. Most grain came from Jiangsu and Zhe Jiang, with more than 3 million dan (1 dan=1 hectoliter) in each year, while the grain imported in the capital from Anhui, Shanghai and other areas was just more than 1 million dan. The grain and the surplus grain stored in the capital were less than 4. 23 mil- lion dan, but the capital was in need of 5.36 million dan in this very period,...

From 1860 to 1864, the grain supply in the Heavenly Capital of the Taipings (Nanking) was mainly from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Shanghai. Most grain came from Jiangsu and Zhe Jiang, with more than 3 million dan (1 dan=1 hectoliter) in each year, while the grain imported in the capital from Anhui, Shanghai and other areas was just more than 1 million dan. The grain and the surplus grain stored in the capital were less than 4. 23 mil- lion dan, but the capital was in need of 5.36 million dan in this very period, it was still short of 1.13 million dan, approximately equal to grains required for one year by the whole population of the capital. Therefore, in the late period of the Taipings, the Heavenly Capital was always bothered by grain problem and threatened by famine. Grain problem, was an important factor that led to the fall of the capital and the ultimate failure of the Taiping the Heavenly Kingdom.

1860年至1864年间,太平天国首都天京的粮食主要来源于苏浙、安徽及上海三地,其中来源于苏浙的最多,约有300余万石,而从安徽、上海两地及通过其他途径输入的粮食总共不过100余万石。1860—1864年,天京共从上述三地输入粮食400余万石,加上城中所剩余粮总共不足423万石,与同时期天京所需粮食约536万石相比大概还差113万石,即大约相当于城中人口一年的口粮。因此,太平天国后期天京城一直为粮食问题所困扰,时时面临粮威胁,这是导致天京失守乃至整个太平天国运动最终失败的一个重要原因。

From 1928 to 1948,the changes in the quantity about the foreign nationals in Beiping may divide to relative stable,rapid increase and sudden drop phases. In the above\|mentioned changes,the increase or decrease of Japan nationals during the period of the city fallen into Japan aggressors was the decisive factor. Therefore,Japan's colonial policy led to grave consequences on the city both socially and economically, it not only caused the grain shortage and prostitutes with drug addicts shot up,but also forcibly...

From 1928 to 1948,the changes in the quantity about the foreign nationals in Beiping may divide to relative stable,rapid increase and sudden drop phases. In the above\|mentioned changes,the increase or decrease of Japan nationals during the period of the city fallen into Japan aggressors was the decisive factor. Therefore,Japan's colonial policy led to grave consequences on the city both socially and economically, it not only caused the grain shortage and prostitutes with drug addicts shot up,but also forcibly squeezed Chinese people's subsistence space. Even if the city planning and constructing when the Japan invaders occupied Beiping has referential significance to the latecomers, and yet Chinese peoples suffered an unprecedented national catastrophe.

192 8~ 1 948年间 ,北平外侨的数量经历了基本平稳、急剧增长、迅速回落三个阶段。八年沦陷期间日侨的增减 ,是其中决定性的因素。在社会经济方面 ,日本的殖民政策造成了北平的粮 ,强占了中国人民的生存空间 ,攫取了巨大的经济利益 ,加剧了毒品娼妓的泛滥。至于沦陷时期的城市建筑、规划对后世所具有的参考作用 ,则是以中国人民所遭受的空前的民族灾难为代价的

The famine between 1900-1909 led directly to the rice-plundering unrest in Changsha. The successive famine brought about a disordered society,a degenerated moral standard, and the twisted human nature. Meanwhile government measures to relieve the victims failed. The famine provided chances for the inevitable mass uprising. Rice-plundering unrest in Changsha was a starting point of all kinds of struggles in 1910. Hence the Revelution in 1911.

190 0— 190 9年灾直接导致了长沙抢米风潮的爆发。连年灾使社会生活紊乱、道德失范、人性扭曲 ;而政府赈灾济的措施不能达到安抚灾民的目的 ,又为民变爆发提供了某些偶然因素。以此为起点的民变与同时期各种斗争聚合在一起 ,从而形成为革命的环境。

 
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