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Encyclopedia Sinica: Operas and Quyi Forms, Introductory Volume takes the features of local operas for those of all types of opera, thus misrepresenting the differences between the literary stage and non-literary stage of the development of opera. Zaju of Yuan, legends of Ming and Qing and traditional European operas all belong to literary drama, while local operas are performing drama. "Performing art language" concepts should replace "stereotyping" concepts in studies of local operas. Traditional operas in...

Encyclopedia Sinica: Operas and Quyi Forms, Introductory Volume takes the features of local operas for those of all types of opera, thus misrepresenting the differences between the literary stage and non-literary stage of the development of opera. Zaju of Yuan, legends of Ming and Qing and traditional European operas all belong to literary drama, while local operas are performing drama. "Performing art language" concepts should replace "stereotyping" concepts in studies of local operas. Traditional operas in Europe are essentially the art of the plot, while the classical Chinese operas, including local operas, are essentially the art of language.

《中国大百科全书·戏曲·曲艺》卷概论把地方戏特征看作全部戏曲的特征,混淆了戏曲发展的文学阶段与非文学阶段的区别。元杂剧、明清传奇和欧洲传统戏剧都是文学的戏剧,地方戏是表演的戏剧。应以“舞台艺术语言”的概念取代地方戏研究中“程式”的概念。欧洲传统戏剧主要是情节的艺术,包括地方戏在内的古典戏曲则主要是语言的艺术。

Chinese drama garment is an important element of the Chinesc drama. It is based on reallife and gets changing with the development of the Chinese drama. The drama garment in Song Dynastywas close to the clothes in real life but the artists tried to make it in harmony with the humorousdramas. The drama garment in Yuan dynasty got increased in quantity and became artistic. The garmentin Ming and Qing Dynasty tended to be formulized and became stable. The artists tried not to have the"wrong clothes" in the practice...

Chinese drama garment is an important element of the Chinesc drama. It is based on reallife and gets changing with the development of the Chinese drama. The drama garment in Song Dynastywas close to the clothes in real life but the artists tried to make it in harmony with the humorousdramas. The drama garment in Yuan dynasty got increased in quantity and became artistic. The garmentin Ming and Qing Dynasty tended to be formulized and became stable. The artists tried not to have the"wrong clothes" in the practice and had the rules. The art of drama garment is not only because of itsbeauty, showing the character's race, position, profession, age and characteristics, etc. but alsobecause it can show the character's mood and temperament.

戏曲服饰是戏曲审美的一个重要对象,它以生活为基础,随着戏曲的发展而不断嬗变。宋杂剧的服饰,虽然离生活服饰较近,但艺人们力求它和诙谐滑稽的杂剧风格相一致。元杂剧的服饰,数量增多,趋向艺术性,而明清传奇阶段则是服饰走向程式化与相对稳定的阶段。艺人们在艺术实践中,对服饰的穿着,有一定的规制,尽可能“不穿乱”。戏曲服饰的艺术性不仅在于美观瞻,和显示人物的民族、地位、职业、年龄、品性等,更重要的是它能帮助演员表现人物的情绪、气质等内在的状态。

Guan Han qing was the founder of the poetic drama in the Yuan Dynasty who built the model literary form of the Chinese national opera art in the creation of the Chinese comdedy,tragedy,historical play,etc.,which provides the valuable experience to the later artists.

关汉卿是元杂剧的奠基人 ,他在中国戏曲喜剧、悲剧、正剧和历史剧的创作中 ,全面营造了中国戏曲艺术的典范文体模式 ,为后来的艺术家提供了宝贵的经验

 
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