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极端温度
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    Obtaining triploids by high and low temperature treating female flower buds of white poplar.
    极端温度处理白杨雌花芽培育三倍体植株的研究
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    The results showed that:a. The regions with better covered vegetation could decrecase the temperature and increase the humidity than those of no-vegetation covered;
    结果表明 :( 1 )植被覆盖较好的比无植被覆盖的地区在降低温度和增加空气湿度方面 ,有显著的差异 ,植被覆盖区平均降低温度 2℃ ,降低极端温度为 3 .3℃ ,平均增大相对湿度大约为 3 0 %。
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  extreme temperature
The recurrence and intensity of extreme temperature drops during the growing seasons of the past six centuries were reconstructed.
      
In particular, the extreme temperature range on Mercury may result in latitudinal variations in the size distribution of npFe0, and therefore the spectral properties of the soil.
      
The possibility of using this material for the manufacture of thermomechanical couplings intended for the design of extra reliable thermomechanical joints operating under extreme temperature conditions is considered.
      
To achieve a suitable resolution, with this particularly exacting high-temperature application, a short 5 m capillary column of extreme temperature stability has been used.
      
A method is developed that enables one to model extreme temperature regimes for heterogeneous reactions, to study the mechanisms of structure formation at a microscopic level, and to perform micrography of the process of interaction.
      
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The 26 origins of Pinus armandi were used as the test materials. The inheritance and character variations of the 8 years old juvenile forest were analysed. Through the researches, we found out that there were significant differences among different provenances, and there was notable linear correlation between the majority of the characters and the latitudes in their original places. Pinus armandi shows a latitudinal decline. The provenance of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau grows faster; its biomass yield is high and...

The 26 origins of Pinus armandi were used as the test materials. The inheritance and character variations of the 8 years old juvenile forest were analysed. Through the researches, we found out that there were significant differences among different provenances, and there was notable linear correlation between the majority of the characters and the latitudes in their original places. Pinus armandi shows a latitudinal decline. The provenance of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau grows faster; its biomass yield is high and its needles are longer and are in small density. The provenance of Qinling-Dabashan Mountains is on the contrary. The leading factor of the variations is caused by the extreme temperatures of the original places of Pinus armandi.

华山松(Pinus armandi Franch.)分布很广,生态条件变化梯度大。对华山松种源幼林(8年生)性状变异的研究表明,种源间存在着显著差异,多数性状与产地纬度有密切的线性相关,呈纬向为主的渐变群。云贵高原种源生长快、生物产量高、针叶长、针叶着生密度小;而秦岭—大巴山区种源则与此相反。华山松各产地的极端温度是其种源变异的主导因子。

Trichogramma dendrolimi and Anastatus olbitarsis are main hymenopterous parasites of many agricultural and forestry crops. T. dendrolimi begins to emerge at the last ten days of March in Zhejiang, overwinters in the third generation of D. punctatus and eggs of D.latipenuis with nymph. It has 17~19 generations in one year with D. punctatus as intermediate host. Development temperature is 6. 02± 0. 51℃, 212. 06℃ d for effective accumulated temperature.Under 20~21 ℃, adult T. dendrolimi lifetime is 5~10 days. Every...

Trichogramma dendrolimi and Anastatus olbitarsis are main hymenopterous parasites of many agricultural and forestry crops. T. dendrolimi begins to emerge at the last ten days of March in Zhejiang, overwinters in the third generation of D. punctatus and eggs of D.latipenuis with nymph. It has 17~19 generations in one year with D. punctatus as intermediate host. Development temperature is 6. 02± 0. 51℃, 212. 06℃ d for effective accumulated temperature.Under 20~21 ℃, adult T. dendrolimi lifetime is 5~10 days. Every female T. dendrolimi deposits meanly 76.5 eggs. Main factors to influence population are insect eggs quantity in the forest,egg period, species and floWer period of bee plant,extreme temperature in the forest. Horizontal dispersion distance in the forest can reache 84.5m. Natural parasite rate in D. Punctatus eggs is 37.65%, 89.8% when artificial release is carried out. A. albftarsis has 6~7 generations in one year under natural temperature, overwlnted in eggs of D. latipenufs. D. punctatns, etc. With adult larva. Antheraea pernyi is as intermediate host. Development temperature is 10. 87 ±0. 46℃,313. 87℃d for effective accumulated temperature. Under 13~18℃. adult A. albitarsis lifetime reaches 57 days. Natural parasite rate in eggs of D. punctatus is nearly 22.29%, and 23.45% in that of D. latipenuis. Horizontal dispersion distance in the forest can reach 32.6m. Intermediate hosts of T. dendrolimi and A. albitarsis in Zhejiang have over 50 species and can mass-propagate artificially.

松毛虫赤眼蜂(TrichogrammadendrolimiMatsumura)、白跗平腹小蜂(Anastatusalbi-talsisAshmead)是多种农林作物害虫的重要寄生蜂。松毛虫赤眼蜂在浙江于3月下旬开始羽化,10月上旬至11月以蛹在第3代松毛虫(DendrolimuspunctatusWalker)和柳杉毛虫(D.laflpenuisWalker)的卵中越冬,自然温度下全年经历17~19世代,用松毛虫做中间寄主,发育起点温度6.02±0.51℃,有效积温212.06℃d,在20~21℃下,成蜂寿命5~10d,每雌蜂一生平均产卵76.5粒,在年周期活动中该蜂种群出现2~3个高峰,影响该蜂种群消长的主要因子为林间昆虫卵的数量、卵期以及蜜源植物种类、花期和林间极端温度,该蜂在林间水平扩散距离最远达84.5m,对松毛虫卵的自然寄生率为37.65%,人工释放时对松毛虫卵的寄生率可达89.8%。白跗平腹小蜂在浙江于4月中、下旬开始活动,9月下旬至10月,以老熟幼虫在柳杉毛虫、松毛虫等卵中越冬,自然温度下全年经历6~7世代,用柞蚕剖腹卵做中间寄主,发育起点温度10.87±0.46℃,有效积温313....

松毛虫赤眼蜂(TrichogrammadendrolimiMatsumura)、白跗平腹小蜂(Anastatusalbi-talsisAshmead)是多种农林作物害虫的重要寄生蜂。松毛虫赤眼蜂在浙江于3月下旬开始羽化,10月上旬至11月以蛹在第3代松毛虫(DendrolimuspunctatusWalker)和柳杉毛虫(D.laflpenuisWalker)的卵中越冬,自然温度下全年经历17~19世代,用松毛虫做中间寄主,发育起点温度6.02±0.51℃,有效积温212.06℃d,在20~21℃下,成蜂寿命5~10d,每雌蜂一生平均产卵76.5粒,在年周期活动中该蜂种群出现2~3个高峰,影响该蜂种群消长的主要因子为林间昆虫卵的数量、卵期以及蜜源植物种类、花期和林间极端温度,该蜂在林间水平扩散距离最远达84.5m,对松毛虫卵的自然寄生率为37.65%,人工释放时对松毛虫卵的寄生率可达89.8%。白跗平腹小蜂在浙江于4月中、下旬开始活动,9月下旬至10月,以老熟幼虫在柳杉毛虫、松毛虫等卵中越冬,自然温度下全年经历6~7世代,用柞蚕剖腹卵做中间寄主,发育起点温度10.87±0.46℃,有效积温313.87℃d,?

For examining the variation of foliar mineral element concentration,the needle samples from ten sample trees in each of 26 seed sources within a 12-year old provenance trial located in Anhua County, Hunan Province were collected. For studying seasonal dynamics of mineral element concentrations the needles were collected on the following dates: April 30,July 30 and October 30 of 1991 and January 30 of 1992.At each sampling date the current and previous-year needls on the second whorl from crown top were sampled...

For examining the variation of foliar mineral element concentration,the needle samples from ten sample trees in each of 26 seed sources within a 12-year old provenance trial located in Anhua County, Hunan Province were collected. For studying seasonal dynamics of mineral element concentrations the needles were collected on the following dates: April 30,July 30 and October 30 of 1991 and January 30 of 1992.At each sampling date the current and previous-year needls on the second whorl from crown top were sampled respectively.Thus at each sampling date there was one sample per needle age class from ten sample trees for analysis. Concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg were determined by the Analysis Centre of Central-Southern Forestry College. The results showed that concentrations of all measured nutrient element among provenances varied significantly and the apparent geographic variation pattern was exist with significant correlation coefficients related to the latitudes and longitude of seed origins. The concentrations of N, P and Ca of northern seed source group were higher than those of southern seed source group and the K and Mg concentration were lower than those of southern seed source, but the pattern of seasonal change in concentration of mineral elements was similar for the two different distinct geographic regions, i. e. Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Qinling-Dabashan Mountains.

以12年生的种源林为取材对象,在1991年4月30日、7月30日、10月30日及1992年1月30日同时采当年和1年生针叶,测定N、P、K、Ca和Mg浓度。结果表明,除K外,其它矿质元素浓度种源间存在极显著差异。地理变异呈纬向渐变型。极端温度与元素地理差异有密切关系,并构成主导自然选择压。元素浓度的季节动态与针叶生长节律循环相伴。南、北华山松已分化成两个营养能力显著不同的地理种群,但动态模式基本相似。

 
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