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数量增加了
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  quantity and increase
     Presented Some new design scheme against some problems in electric actuators: PIC16C73 single-chip computer was used in which there are five A/D inputs and two PMW outputs, in order to reduce interface parts quantity and increase reliability ;
     针对目前电子式电动执行机构控制器存在的一些问题提出新的设计方案,包括采用具有5路A/D输入和PMW方式D/A输出的PIC16C73单片机作为控制器的核心部件,减少了接口器件数量,增加了产品的可靠性;
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     In treatment ECT,the numbers of rhizospheric actinomycetes and fungi increased by 49%,50% and 96%,and 151%,57% and 48% in June,August and October,respectively,while that of rhizospheric bacteria had little variation.
     ECT处理的根际放线菌数量分别增加了49%、50%和96%,根际真菌数量增加了151%、57%和48%,而ECT对根际细菌数量影响不显著.
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     After inoculated with G. mosseae,the root length,lateral root number,and fibrous root number and length of the seedlings were increased by 22.7%,35.7%,160.8% and 103.2%,respectively.
     与对照相比,接种AM真菌能显著促进植株地上和地下部分生长,尤其促进了须根的生长,接种Glomus m osseae处理的主根长度比对照增加了22.7%,侧根数量增加了35.7%,须根数量和总长分别增加了160.8%和103.2%;
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     The numbers of bacteria in the soil cultivated as paddy field for 30 years were 1.1-fold (0~10 cm) and 3.8-fold (10~20 cm) higher than that for 3 years, and the corresponding values in soils cultivated for 80 years were 19-fold (0~10 cm) and 12-fold (10~20 cm).
     与利用 3年的红壤稻田相比 ,利用 30年后细菌数量增加了 1 1倍 ( 0~ 1 0cm)和 3 8倍 ( 1 0~2 0cm) ,利用 80年后更显著地增加了 1 9倍 ( 0~ 1 0cm)和 1 2倍 ( 1 0~ 2 0cm) ;
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     The paper concerns in virgin korean pine forest, after sanitation cutting, the herb increases 59.1%, the shrub decreases 50.95%, the litter decreases 24.58%.
     本文揭示了红松原始林卫生清理后,绿色草本植物数量增加了59.1%,矮小灌木数量下降了50.95%,枯枝落叶层含量下降了24.58%。
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     The number of patch has increased 46%, and the density of patch has increased two times.
     同时沼泽湿地景观的破碎化显著 ,斑块数量增加了 46 % ,斑块密度净增加两倍。
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     (3) increasing the number of transducers;
     (3)增加变送器数量 ;
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     2.The library amount was more than before.
     2 .图书馆数量增加 ;
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     (2) immune complex increased with cell age.
     免疫复合物增加
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     the sugar content increased;
     含糖量增加
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     2. Soil microorganism population quantities and microbial biomasses were increased by plastic film mulch.
     2.地膜覆盖增加土壤微生物的数量和微生物生物量。
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The general histological structure is fundamentally similar to that of the skin of frog (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1). In the superficial layer of the dermis there are large and conspicuous round masses, which are akin to the sieve layer (Siebschicht of Kastschenko) both in appearance and in staining reaction (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅳ, Fig. 6). To our knowledge, the origin and function of these masses as well as the sieve layer are still obscure.According to the living habit, the life of the toad during the year can be divided...

The general histological structure is fundamentally similar to that of the skin of frog (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1). In the superficial layer of the dermis there are large and conspicuous round masses, which are akin to the sieve layer (Siebschicht of Kastschenko) both in appearance and in staining reaction (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅳ, Fig. 6). To our knowledge, the origin and function of these masses as well as the sieve layer are still obscure.According to the living habit, the life of the toad during the year can be divided into three seasons: namely, the hibernating, the breeding and the post-breeding season.In the hibernating season the epidermis reaches its maximal thickness due to increase in cell layer as well as in cell size. Cell division is rare in this season. The superficial layer is evenly cornified and the intensity of comification is intermediate, being stronger than that in the breeding season but less than that in the post-breeding season. This horny layer is connected intimately with the layer below and shows no sign of moulting (Pl.Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 1). The flask-cells of Pfitzner (nucous cells of Legdig or goblet cells of Schultze) are very rare and when present, they are not fully differentiated from the ordinary epidermal cells. Melanophores are greatly expanded both in the epidermis and in the dermis (Pl.Ⅳ, Figs. 4, 3). Dermal papillae are tall and prominent (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 1).In the breeding season the epidermis is much thinner than that in the hibernating season. Moulting of skin goes on continuously. In association with moulting the flask-cells increase in number and show vigorous activity in secretion (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig, 2). Numerous amitoses are present in the middle and lower layer of the epidermis. At the initiation of the amitotic division a furrow appears at one side of the nucleus, which deepens and finally cuts the nucleus into two. Sometimes two furrows are formed, causing one nucleus to break up into three. A furrow may start at one end of the long diameter of the elliptical nucleus, causing it to split longitudinally into two daughter nuclei (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig, 2). We call this mode of amitosis furrowing amitosis. The usual mode of amitosis in which the nucleus divides by a central constriction could be found also, but cases are very rare. Mitotic figures are very rare. Melanophores are more or less contracted in the epidermis as well as in the dermis (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 2).In the post-breeding season the epidermis is intermediate in thickness between those of hibernating and breeding seasons. Due to the dryness on land the certification of the superficial layer is intense. Sometimes there are three layers of highly cornified cells, while in the other seasons this layer is always simple (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 3, 4, 5). Both mitosis and amitosis are present (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 6, 7). The former is much more in number than the latter. Wandering cells in the dermis penetrate into the epidermis and become epidermal cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 1, 2, 3). Flask-cells are fewer in number and less in activity than in the breeding season, hence the moulting of skin goes on slowly. All the melanophores are contracted in the form of a black spot (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 3, 4, 5). The blood vessels in the epidermis are greatly expanded, and are therefore easily seen (Pl.Ⅳ, Fig. 6).The nuclei of certain epidermal cells send out processes, which penetrate through the cell membrane and move along the intercellular spaces (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 4, 6). Sometimes these processes get into the neighboring cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 7, 8). In still other cases nuclei sued out coarse processes which come into contact with identical processes sent out by nuclei of neighboring cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Fig. 5). So far as we know, such intercellular activity of nuclei of the epidermal cells has not been heretofore repoifted. Its significance probably lies in the transportation of certain substances such as DNA. Nuclei showing this activity stain more intensively with Feulgen.The above description applies to the typical structures in each season. It is found that at the time between two se

蟾蜍皮肤的构造基本上与蛙类相同。只是在蟾蜍的真皮上层除去有筛层而外还有大而圆的物体,在形态及染色反应上与筛层相近似,我们名之为粘液团(因为有粘液反应)。 依大蟾蜍的生活习性,我们把它在一年之中的生活分为三期——冬眠期、生殖期及生殖后期。 冬眠期表皮的厚度增加,层数多,细胞也增大。很少见细胞分裂。表层细胞角化得很均匀,其程度比生殖期略强而比生殖后期为弱。这一层与下面一层连接得很紧密,没有任何脱落的迹象。瓶状细胞很少,如果看到总是处于不太分化的状态,除去它的细胞质比较清明而外,与表皮细胞的差别不大。在表皮与真皮之中色素细胞极度扩张。真皮乳头高而显著。 生殖期表皮比冬眠期薄,脱皮不断迸行。与脱皮相关的瓶状细胞数量增加,并且显现非常强烈的分泌过程。在中层及下层中有许多的无丝分裂。分裂的方式多为陷沟式。一般所见的无丝分裂即核拉长,中间缢缩,然后分开的情形也能见到,不过远比陷沟式为少。有丝分裂很少见到。表皮与真皮中的色素细胞多少有些收缩。 生殖后期表皮的厚度界于冬眠与生殖二期之间。由于陆地的干燥表皮表层细胞角化程度加深。有时表面集聚三层高度角化的细胞,而在其他季节中表层总是一层。有丝分裂与无丝分裂皆有,但前者远比后者为多...

蟾蜍皮肤的构造基本上与蛙类相同。只是在蟾蜍的真皮上层除去有筛层而外还有大而圆的物体,在形态及染色反应上与筛层相近似,我们名之为粘液团(因为有粘液反应)。 依大蟾蜍的生活习性,我们把它在一年之中的生活分为三期——冬眠期、生殖期及生殖后期。 冬眠期表皮的厚度增加,层数多,细胞也增大。很少见细胞分裂。表层细胞角化得很均匀,其程度比生殖期略强而比生殖后期为弱。这一层与下面一层连接得很紧密,没有任何脱落的迹象。瓶状细胞很少,如果看到总是处于不太分化的状态,除去它的细胞质比较清明而外,与表皮细胞的差别不大。在表皮与真皮之中色素细胞极度扩张。真皮乳头高而显著。 生殖期表皮比冬眠期薄,脱皮不断迸行。与脱皮相关的瓶状细胞数量增加,并且显现非常强烈的分泌过程。在中层及下层中有许多的无丝分裂。分裂的方式多为陷沟式。一般所见的无丝分裂即核拉长,中间缢缩,然后分开的情形也能见到,不过远比陷沟式为少。有丝分裂很少见到。表皮与真皮中的色素细胞多少有些收缩。 生殖后期表皮的厚度界于冬眠与生殖二期之间。由于陆地的干燥表皮表层细胞角化程度加深。有时表面集聚三层高度角化的细胞,而在其他季节中表层总是一层。有丝分裂与无丝分裂皆有,但前者远比后者为多,真皮中的游走细胞穿入?

~~

本工作就我国华东、华中地区一些主要类型水稻土进行土壤微生物区系(细菌,放线菌,真菌,嫌气性细菌,好气性非共生性固氮菌,硝化细菌,反硝化细菌,反硫化细菌和好气纤维分解菌等)分析,并测土壤氨化强度和呼吸作用强度,获得以下主要结果:1.水稻土中微生物区系数量分布与其他土壤一样,无论是细菌和放线菌,或者是真菌,都是主要集中于耕作层,犁底层数量突降,一般均为耕作层数量20—50%,心土中微生物更少。好气性细菌和嫌气性细菌之间的比值,随土层深度增加而增加。2.各主要类型水稻土耕作层中,每克土壤中细菌数量在300万—2,000万之间,放线菌处于10万—300万的范围内,真菌为0.7万—12万。3.好气性非共生固氮菌在江苏省内分布较广,数量也较多,除无锡的黄泥土(母质为湖积物)外,平均每克土壤数量为1000—10000以上。而江西省,除乐平的污泥土由于大量使用石灰,土壤已呈微碱性(pH7.5—8.0),合有较多固氮菌细胞(6000/1克土),其他土壤中固氮菌时有时无。湖北孝感的土壤中,固氮菌数量平均每克土中不足200个细胞。4.无论是什么地区,何种母质上发育形成的水稻土,在其肥力水平高的土壤中,细菌、放线菌和真菌数量均比肥力...

本工作就我国华东、华中地区一些主要类型水稻土进行土壤微生物区系(细菌,放线菌,真菌,嫌气性细菌,好气性非共生性固氮菌,硝化细菌,反硝化细菌,反硫化细菌和好气纤维分解菌等)分析,并测土壤氨化强度和呼吸作用强度,获得以下主要结果:1.水稻土中微生物区系数量分布与其他土壤一样,无论是细菌和放线菌,或者是真菌,都是主要集中于耕作层,犁底层数量突降,一般均为耕作层数量20—50%,心土中微生物更少。好气性细菌和嫌气性细菌之间的比值,随土层深度增加而增加。2.各主要类型水稻土耕作层中,每克土壤中细菌数量在300万—2,000万之间,放线菌处于10万—300万的范围内,真菌为0.7万—12万。3.好气性非共生固氮菌在江苏省内分布较广,数量也较多,除无锡的黄泥土(母质为湖积物)外,平均每克土壤数量为1000—10000以上。而江西省,除乐平的污泥土由于大量使用石灰,土壤已呈微碱性(pH7.5—8.0),合有较多固氮菌细胞(6000/1克土),其他土壤中固氮菌时有时无。湖北孝感的土壤中,固氮菌数量平均每克土中不足200个细胞。4.无论是什么地区,何种母质上发育形成的水稻土,在其肥力水平高的土壤中,细菌、放线菌和真菌数量均比肥力低者为多;生理类羣中的硝化细菌、氨化细菌、好气性非共生固氮菌和好气性纤维分解细菌也有同样的趋势,而反硝化细菌却适得其反。5.不同肥力的同一类型水稻土,肥力高者其氨化强度和呼吸强度较肥力低者为大,但是,土壤中生化作用强度的大小与其相适应的微生物类羣数量并不是简单的比例关系。6.深耕土壤,增施肥料,特别是有机肥料的施用,直接促使了水稻土中各类羣微生物数量增加,大大加强了土壤微生物的活动性。

4—5, 9, 10—12-

在《论害虫大量发生及其预测(一)》中,马世骏教授(1955)把猖獗周期性及害虫发生数量的平衡现象认为是害虫大量发生基本认识的问题。这是值得讨论的。间歇性大量发生的害虫种类可以举出一些,而在其中能找到具有显明的猖獗周期的却不多。在我国间歇性大量发生的害虫中,还没有那几种害虫找到了多年猖獗周期。而且在文献材料上列举的认为已证明了有明显的猖獗周期的害虫,还有不少是受到周期论的影响而牵强计算出来的。认为害虫猖獗周期性是普遍存在的现象和把猖獗周期性列为对害虫大量发生的基本认识,理由是不够充分的。害虫发生数量的平衡现象,在文献上也有过不少争论,而且形成了两种观点。一种观点是以自然界中的平衡起着对发生数量变化的作用,维系着生物群落中各种生物的数量,如果某种生物的数量增加,必然会遇到抗拒的自然平衡的力量。这种力量使各种的数量上趋于中等水平。由于这样的“动的平衡”使生物群落中各个种的数量保持着相当稳定的状态。另一种观点是以自然界本身存在着相互联系,相互制约的规律,从这规律出发,具体地从生态学和种的生物学特性来研究害虫的数量波动问题,而且反对承认存在超自然的自然平衡的力量。后者在苏联广泛传播。 我们认为应从有机体与其生存条件的统...

在《论害虫大量发生及其预测(一)》中,马世骏教授(1955)把猖獗周期性及害虫发生数量的平衡现象认为是害虫大量发生基本认识的问题。这是值得讨论的。间歇性大量发生的害虫种类可以举出一些,而在其中能找到具有显明的猖獗周期的却不多。在我国间歇性大量发生的害虫中,还没有那几种害虫找到了多年猖獗周期。而且在文献材料上列举的认为已证明了有明显的猖獗周期的害虫,还有不少是受到周期论的影响而牵强计算出来的。认为害虫猖獗周期性是普遍存在的现象和把猖獗周期性列为对害虫大量发生的基本认识,理由是不够充分的。害虫发生数量的平衡现象,在文献上也有过不少争论,而且形成了两种观点。一种观点是以自然界中的平衡起着对发生数量变化的作用,维系着生物群落中各种生物的数量,如果某种生物的数量增加,必然会遇到抗拒的自然平衡的力量。这种力量使各种的数量上趋于中等水平。由于这样的“动的平衡”使生物群落中各个种的数量保持着相当稳定的状态。另一种观点是以自然界本身存在着相互联系,相互制约的规律,从这规律出发,具体地从生态学和种的生物学特性来研究害虫的数量波动问题,而且反对承认存在超自然的自然平衡的力量。后者在苏联广泛传播。 我们认为应从有机体与其生存条件的统一的基本原理为基础,从?

 
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