The Logical relationship between fuzzy error logical decomposition words and intensional negative words will be explored in order to study and exploit the control and prevention for risk of securities investment.

In fact, the logical restriction of concept and its form of expression present their variety and complexity not only in words, phrases and sentences at different levels, but also in the same form of language structure, such as in the attributive structure.

From the view of equivalent logic in modern logic and the analysis of the logistic structure of the 3 relation inference in "WEN ZHI", the realization of equivalent words inference depends on their replacements, then the unknown is deduced from the known.

It is the implication word that is able to connect p、Q and to define the olgic manner. Thus the implication word is the cihief link-word. Thenefore,“p→Q”should be the expression of the symbol of hypothetical judgement under adequate conditions,when both the antecedant and the consequent are negative items.

To make "allow" an accredited standard word, and to equate may "not P" with "don't allow p" are two origins of the inaccuracy of the standard phalanx theory;

whether the outspread of the compound forms of standard proposition. is correct or not depends on the accurate grasp of the meaning of the standard word and the logic nature of proposition conjunction.

In the present investigation, 4-hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone, on condensation with appropriate aldehydes in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution, yielded the corresponding chalcones (CI-XI).

A set B of n items and a set S of m knapsacks are given such that each item j has a profit pj and weight wj, and each knapsack i has a capacity Ci.

Within the structure mentioned, instead of complex modulation patterns, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) combined with PO-CI spreading code is utilized.

The efficiency of light energy utilization of Platycladus orientalis was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis; PN, Tr and Ci of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were enhanced by increasing soil moisture content, whereas WUE declined.

Three most parsimonious cladograms (126 steps in length; CI = 0.508; RI = 0.801) were discovered.

In the present investigation, 4-hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone, on condensation with appropriate aldehydes in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution, yielded the corresponding chalcones (CI-XI).

A set B of n items and a set S of m knapsacks are given such that each item j has a profit pj and weight wj, and each knapsack i has a capacity Ci.

Within the structure mentioned, instead of complex modulation patterns, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) combined with PO-CI spreading code is utilized.

The efficiency of light energy utilization of Platycladus orientalis was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis; PN, Tr and Ci of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were enhanced by increasing soil moisture content, whereas WUE declined.

Three most parsimonious cladograms (126 steps in length; CI = 0.508; RI = 0.801) were discovered.

In the restricted predicate calculus we deal with functions, namely, the thing functions which take individuals as as values and the propositional functions i.e. predicates. Usually they take only individuals as arguments. Such a restriction seems, however, too severe. It would be better if we allow them to take also propositions as arguments. Besides, we deal also with operators, namely, quantifiers and descriptions. By the same reason, it would be better if we allow them to take also terms as their scopes...

In the restricted predicate calculus we deal with functions, namely, the thing functions which take individuals as as values and the propositional functions i.e. predicates. Usually they take only individuals as arguments. Such a restriction seems, however, too severe. It would be better if we allow them to take also propositions as arguments. Besides, we deal also with operators, namely, quantifiers and descriptions. By the same reason, it would be better if we allow them to take also terms as their scopes and to take propositional variables as the directive variables. Further, in the extended predicate calculus, we deal also with functions of higher order and operators of higher order. We usually consider them to be quite different from each other. In the present paper, we show that: First, the functions of the second order are the same as the operators ofthe first order. For example, the expression φ(A), where φ is a function of second order, and A is a two-place first order function, may also be represented as φ_(xy) A(x,y), where φ_(xy) is an operator of first order with two directive variables x and y. On the other hand, the expression lim(x→a) f(x), where lim is an operator of first order, may also be represented as lim(a,f), where lira is now a function of second order with one individual argument and one functionargument (of first order). In general, the functions of order n+1 are the same as the operators of order n. (However, see the following.) Secondly, when we apply functions of second order (i.e. operator of first order) to functions of first order to form a term or a formula, it is not that the former (of higher order) take the latter (of lower order) as arguments (so asserted by the prevailing opinion), but that the former become arguments of the latter, or at least that the former bind the empty places of the latter. Anyhow we cannot say that the latter are arguments of the former. Hence the usual expressions Axa(x) and lim(x→a) f(x) should be written as (αA and (f lira α or as Aα(i) and lim a f(i). (We stipulate that if operators should be written after the scope they must be coupled with left parentheses.) Thirdly, since the first order operators (i.e. functions of the second order) never take functions of first order as arguments, there is no room to give riseto higher functions and operators. Hence we have only individuals, propositions, functions (of first order) and operators (of first order, i.e. functions of second order). The extended predicate calculus would become much simpler.

Necessity is not a one-place modal term in common logical thinking, and there is no internal connection between necessity and truth-function of eternal truth. "A necessi- tates B" means that "the determination of the truth-values, which can be independent of A and B, is not the case that A is true and B false", where "the determination of the truth-values which can be independent of A and B" may be called" the first indepen- dence". "A necessitates B" can be symbolized as "A→B", reading as "A Lin-entails B",...

Necessity is not a one-place modal term in common logical thinking, and there is no internal connection between necessity and truth-function of eternal truth. "A necessi- tates B" means that "the determination of the truth-values, which can be independent of A and B, is not the case that A is true and B false", where "the determination of the truth-values which can be independent of A and B" may be called" the first indepen- dence". "A necessitates B" can be symbolized as "A→B", reading as "A Lin-entails B", where "→" is called "Lin's entailment symbol", a non-traditional, 2-place connective. Possibility means not necessarily not; contingency implies non-necessity and possibility; "A thoroughly contingent to B"-their connection is contingency no matter what place A or -A, B or -B is put in. It is easy to prove. Semantically A→B (A implies B) of first order predicate calculus is thoroughly contingent to "if A, then B"(a logical appara- tus in meta-language).

F.P. Ramsey discovered that when second-order logic is applied to a scien-tific theory(T) which contains a finite number of axioms, the theoretical terms in T can be removed. By substituting T's axiom with Ramsey sentence,all the empirical consequences of T can be maintained. In a narrow sense, bydisregarding the meaning of the theoretical words, the Ramsey method providesa logic tactic in handling such words. In a broad, sense, the Ramsey methodgives stress on the description of the relationship between the...

F.P. Ramsey discovered that when second-order logic is applied to a scien-tific theory(T) which contains a finite number of axioms, the theoretical terms in T can be removed. By substituting T's axiom with Ramsey sentence,all the empirical consequences of T can be maintained. In a narrow sense, bydisregarding the meaning of the theoretical words, the Ramsey method providesa logic tactic in handling such words. In a broad, sense, the Ramsey methodgives stress on the description of the relationship between the objects whileignoring the explanation on the nature of the objects. This broad-sense under-standing of Ramsey method is odtained in this essay by comparing Ramseymethod with logical empiricism on the distinction between calculus and interpre-tation and by some research into the modern scientific methodology.