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  words
    Logical Relationship between Fuzzy Error Logical Decomposition Words and Connotative Negative Words
    模糊错误逻辑分解转化与内涵否定的逻辑关系
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    In a narrow sense, bydisregarding the meaning of the theoretical words, the Ramsey method providesa logic tactic in handling such words.
    狭义而言,Ramsey方法通过对理论性项的意义存而不论,从而提供了一种处理该类项的逻辑技巧;
短句来源
    The Logical relationship between fuzzy error logical decomposition words and intensional negative words will be explored in order to study and exploit the control and prevention for risk of securities investment.
    在文 [1]的基础上 ,在简单分析现时中错误的传递与转化的实际存在的同时 ,介绍国内外在逻辑研究领域对事物传递与转化规律的研究现状。 特别为了探索控制与防范证券风险的技术而主要研究模糊错误逻辑分解转化与内涵否定的逻辑关系。
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    In fact, the logical restriction of concept and its form of expression present their variety and complexity not only in words, phrases and sentences at different levels, but also in the same form of language structure, such as in the attributive structure.
    实际上,概念的逻辑限制,其语言表达形式既在、短语、和句子等不同层面表现出丰富性和复杂性,也在同一种语言结构形式,如定中结构中表现出丰富性和复杂性。
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    From the view of equivalent logic in modern logic and the analysis of the logistic structure of the 3 relation inference in "WEN ZHI", the realization of equivalent words inference depends on their replacements, then the unknown is deduced from the known.
    另外从现代逻辑的等同逻辑入手,通过对"闻知"中的三个关系推理的逻辑结构分析,运用等替换实现了等推理,进而由已知推出未知。
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  word
    On the Basis of Logic Negation of Generalized Model Structural Word
    论广义模态结构的逻辑否定及其依据
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    The Inference of Equivalent Word of "WEN ZHI" in《MO JING》
    试谈《墨经》“闻知”中的等推理
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    It is the implication word that is able to connect p、Q and to define the olgic manner. Thus the implication word is the cihief link-word. Thenefore,“p→Q”should be the expression of the symbol of hypothetical judgement under adequate conditions,when both the antecedant and the consequent are negative items.
    能把 p、q联结起来 ,并能决定此公式逻辑性质的主联结是蕴涵“→”,那么 ,“p→ q”就应是前后件皆为负件的充分条件假言判断的符号表达式
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    To make "allow" an accredited standard word, and to equate may "not P" with "don't allow p" are two origins of the inaccuracy of the standard phalanx theory;
    将“允许”作为权利性规范 ,把“不可以P”等同于“不允许P”是规范方阵理论的两个误源 ;
短句来源
    whether the outspread of the compound forms of standard proposition. is correct or not depends on the accurate grasp of the meaning of the standard word and the logic nature of proposition conjunction.
    规范命题复合形式展开的正确与否 ,决定于是否准确把握规范的含义和命题联结的逻辑性质
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  words
The measure notion for a fuzzy code and a precise formulation of fuzzy codes and words have been discussed.
      
The present paper concerns with the formula of the count of primitive words and exchangeable primitive words.
      
In other words, below a certain threshold level of burial, the growth of plants is stimulated probably because of multiple factors.
      
A new method for estimating the frontier of a set of points (or a support, in other words) is proposed.
      
In other words, the adult organism has a common cell precursor for these tissues.
      
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  word
There are two model outputs, where either the first two characters form a word or the last two characters form a word.
      
The features of the model include one word in context of OAS, the current OAS and word probability relation of two kinds of segmentation results.
      
The open test precision is 3.76 % better compared with that of the precision of common word probability method.
      
The algorithm of twice word segmentation based on the title and first sentences in paragraphs is investigated.
      
HDL Constructs in Linear Word-Level Decision Diagram Based Specification
      
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  ci
In the present investigation, 4-hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone, on condensation with appropriate aldehydes in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution, yielded the corresponding chalcones (CI-XI).
      
A set B of n items and a set S of m knapsacks are given such that each item j has a profit pj and weight wj, and each knapsack i has a capacity Ci.
      
Within the structure mentioned, instead of complex modulation patterns, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) combined with PO-CI spreading code is utilized.
      
The efficiency of light energy utilization of Platycladus orientalis was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis; PN, Tr and Ci of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were enhanced by increasing soil moisture content, whereas WUE declined.
      
Three most parsimonious cladograms (126 steps in length; CI = 0.508; RI = 0.801) were discovered.
      
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  ci
In the present investigation, 4-hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone, on condensation with appropriate aldehydes in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution, yielded the corresponding chalcones (CI-XI).
      
A set B of n items and a set S of m knapsacks are given such that each item j has a profit pj and weight wj, and each knapsack i has a capacity Ci.
      
Within the structure mentioned, instead of complex modulation patterns, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) combined with PO-CI spreading code is utilized.
      
The efficiency of light energy utilization of Platycladus orientalis was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis; PN, Tr and Ci of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were enhanced by increasing soil moisture content, whereas WUE declined.
      
Three most parsimonious cladograms (126 steps in length; CI = 0.508; RI = 0.801) were discovered.
      
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In the restricted predicate calculus we deal with functions, namely, the thing functions which take individuals as as values and the propositional functions i.e. predicates. Usually they take only individuals as arguments. Such a restriction seems, however, too severe. It would be better if we allow them to take also propositions as arguments. Besides, we deal also with operators, namely, quantifiers and descriptions. By the same reason, it would be better if we allow them to take also terms as their scopes...

In the restricted predicate calculus we deal with functions, namely, the thing functions which take individuals as as values and the propositional functions i.e. predicates. Usually they take only individuals as arguments. Such a restriction seems, however, too severe. It would be better if we allow them to take also propositions as arguments. Besides, we deal also with operators, namely, quantifiers and descriptions. By the same reason, it would be better if we allow them to take also terms as their scopes and to take propositional variables as the directive variables. Further, in the extended predicate calculus, we deal also with functions of higher order and operators of higher order. We usually consider them to be quite different from each other. In the present paper, we show that: First, the functions of the second order are the same as the operators ofthe first order. For example, the expression φ(A), where φ is a function of second order, and A is a two-place first order function, may also be represented as φ_(xy) A(x,y), where φ_(xy) is an operator of first order with two directive variables x and y. On the other hand, the expression lim(x→a) f(x), where lim is an operator of first order, may also be represented as lim(a,f), where lira is now a function of second order with one individual argument and one functionargument (of first order). In general, the functions of order n+1 are the same as the operators of order n. (However, see the following.) Secondly, when we apply functions of second order (i.e. operator of first order) to functions of first order to form a term or a formula, it is not that the former (of higher order) take the latter (of lower order) as arguments (so asserted by the prevailing opinion), but that the former become arguments of the latter, or at least that the former bind the empty places of the latter. Anyhow we cannot say that the latter are arguments of the former. Hence the usual expressions Axa(x) and lim(x→a) f(x) should be written as (αA and (f lira α or as Aα(i) and lim a f(i). (We stipulate that if operators should be written after the scope they must be coupled with left parentheses.) Thirdly, since the first order operators (i.e. functions of the second order) never take functions of first order as arguments, there is no room to give riseto higher functions and operators. Hence we have only individuals, propositions, functions (of first order) and operators (of first order, i.e. functions of second order). The extended predicate calculus would become much simpler.

在狭义谓演算中我们讨论了函谓,即以个体为值的函和以命题为值的谓。通常它们以个体为变目,但这种限制太严了,我们应该容许命题亦作为变目。此外,我们又讨论了量与摹状,它们合称约束。根据同样理由,我们也容许它们的作用域可为项(不限于公式),它们的指导变元可为命题变元。在高级谓演算中,我们还讨论高级函谓和高级约束。通常我们把高级函谓和高级约束看作是本质不同的。在本文中,我们指出: 第一,二级函谓和一级约束是一样的。例如,对二级函谓φ及二元一级函谓A而言,φ(A)亦可表为φ_(xy)A(x,y),这里φ_(xy)为具有两个指导变元的一级约束。另一方面,对一级约束lim而言,lim f(x)亦可表为lim(a,f),这里lim是二级函谓,它有一个个体变目和一个函谓(一级)变目。一般说来,n+1级函谓和n级约束是一样的(但...

在狭义谓演算中我们讨论了函谓,即以个体为值的函和以命题为值的谓。通常它们以个体为变目,但这种限制太严了,我们应该容许命题亦作为变目。此外,我们又讨论了量与摹状,它们合称约束。根据同样理由,我们也容许它们的作用域可为项(不限于公式),它们的指导变元可为命题变元。在高级谓演算中,我们还讨论高级函谓和高级约束。通常我们把高级函谓和高级约束看作是本质不同的。在本文中,我们指出: 第一,二级函谓和一级约束是一样的。例如,对二级函谓φ及二元一级函谓A而言,φ(A)亦可表为φ_(xy)A(x,y),这里φ_(xy)为具有两个指导变元的一级约束。另一方面,对一级约束lim而言,lim f(x)亦可表为lim(a,f),这里lim是二级函谓,它有一个个体变目和一个函谓(一级)变目。一般说来,n+1级函谓和n级约束是一样的(但参看下文)。其次,当我们把二级函谓(亦即一级约束)作用于一级函谓以作成一项或一公式时,并不是前者(级数较高)以后者(级数较低)为变目,(这是通常的说法所断定的),而是前者填充后者的变目,至少是前者约束后者的变目,无论如何,我们不能说后者是前者的变目。因此通常的表达式Axα(x)和limf(x)应该写成(αA和(flima,或写成Aα(i)和lim af(i)。(我们约定,约束应依序约束)。第三,由于二级函谓永不以一级函谓为变目,也就没有产生更高级函谓的可能。因此,我们只有个体、命题、(一级)函谓和(一级)约束四者,因此广义谓演算也就变得更简单了。

Necessity is not a one-place modal term in common logical thinking, and there is no internal connection between necessity and truth-function of eternal truth. "A necessi- tates B" means that "the determination of the truth-values, which can be independent of A and B, is not the case that A is true and B false", where "the determination of the truth-values which can be independent of A and B" may be called" the first indepen- dence". "A necessitates B" can be symbolized as "A→B", reading as "A Lin-entails B",...

Necessity is not a one-place modal term in common logical thinking, and there is no internal connection between necessity and truth-function of eternal truth. "A necessi- tates B" means that "the determination of the truth-values, which can be independent of A and B, is not the case that A is true and B false", where "the determination of the truth-values which can be independent of A and B" may be called" the first indepen- dence". "A necessitates B" can be symbolized as "A→B", reading as "A Lin-entails B", where "→" is called "Lin's entailment symbol", a non-traditional, 2-place connective. Possibility means not necessarily not; contingency implies non-necessity and possibility; "A thoroughly contingent to B"-their connection is contingency no matter what place A or -A, B or -B is put in. It is easy to prove. Semantically A→B (A implies B) of first order predicate calculus is thoroughly contingent to "if A, then B"(a logical appara- tus in meta-language).

在普通逻辑思考实际中,必然既不是1元的模态,而且,必然与恒真的真值函数之间也并无内在联系。“A必然B”的含义为:“可独立于A、B的真值确定不会是A真而B假”,其中的“可独立于A、B的真值确定”称为“第一独立性”。“A必然B”的符号表达式为“A B”,可念作“A制约B”,其中的称为“制约号”,是2元的非正统的联结号。可能就是不必然不;偶然就是不必然且可能;“A风马牛B”的含义为“把A或 H、B或 B不论是放在前域还是后域,这之间的关系都是偶然”,故而也可称为“彻底的偶然”。容易验证,从语义上说,正统一阶谓演算中的A B(A蕴涵B)和在其它语言中用来作为逻辑工具的“若A,则B”之间的关系是风马牛。

F.P. Ramsey discovered that when second-order logic is applied to a scien-tific theory(T) which contains a finite number of axioms, the theoretical terms in T can be removed. By substituting T's axiom with Ramsey sentence,all the empirical consequences of T can be maintained. In a narrow sense, bydisregarding the meaning of the theoretical words, the Ramsey method providesa logic tactic in handling such words. In a broad, sense, the Ramsey methodgives stress on the description of the relationship between the...

F.P. Ramsey discovered that when second-order logic is applied to a scien-tific theory(T) which contains a finite number of axioms, the theoretical terms in T can be removed. By substituting T's axiom with Ramsey sentence,all the empirical consequences of T can be maintained. In a narrow sense, bydisregarding the meaning of the theoretical words, the Ramsey method providesa logic tactic in handling such words. In a broad, sense, the Ramsey methodgives stress on the description of the relationship between the objects whileignoring the explanation on the nature of the objects. This broad-sense under-standing of Ramsey method is odtained in this essay by comparing Ramseymethod with logical empiricism on the distinction between calculus and interpre-tation and by some research into the modern scientific methodology.

F·P·Ramsey(拉姆西)发现,应用二阶逻辑对一个有有限数目公理的科学理论T而言,T中的理论性项可以被消除。将T的公理用Ramsey语句来代替可以保持T的所有的经验推论。狭义而言,Ramsey方法通过对理论性项的意义存而不论,从而提供了一种处理该类项的逻辑技巧;广义而论,Ramsey方法强调对对象之间的关系的描述,而对对象的本质的解释存而不论。本文通过比较Ramsey方法与逻辑经验主义对运算和解释的区分以及对近代科学方法论的若干思考而得到这一对Ramsey方法的广义理解。

 
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