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微生物生态学研究
相关语句
  study on microbial ecology
     Study on Microbial Ecology and Bioremediation of Petroleum Polluted Soil
     原油污染土壤生物修复和微生物生态学研究
短句来源
     Molecular technologies are sensitive, fast, and cheap in the study on microbial ecology. However, these methods do not provide information about morphology, number, and spatial distribution of the microorganisms.
     分子生物学技术在微生物生态学研究中具有灵敏、精确和快速的优势,但不能提供微生物的形态学、数量性状、空间分布等信息。
短句来源
  study on microbiological ecology
     Study on Microbiological Ecology of Steady Fermentation in Acidogenic Phase
     产酸相稳定发酵类型微生物生态学研究
短句来源
  “微生物生态学研究”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Molecular microbial ecology is an interdisciplinary field of molecular biological techniques and microbial ecology, which deals with microbial population, diversity, function, and relationships between microorganisms and biotic and abotic environments in microbial ecosystem.
     分子微生物生态学是分子生物学实验技术应用于微生物生态学研究领域而发展形成的一门交叉学科 ,在研究微生物生态系统组成结构、功能的分子机理以及微生物与生物和非生物环境之间相互关系等方面显示了巨大的潜力 .
短句来源
     Ecological studies on genetically engineered microorganism in environment.
     环境中基因工程微生物生态学研究
短句来源
     The chemostat is a important model in microbial ecology.
     恒化器(chemostat)模型是微生物生态学研究中的一个重要模型。
短句来源
     Advances in studies on genetically engineered microorganism ecology.
     基因工程微生物生态学研究进展
短句来源
     Traditional culture-based methods are limited in their capacity for microbial ecological research on soils because only a small fraction of microbial inhabitants(0.1%~1%) in soils can be cultivated.
     传统的微生物生态学研究方法只限于环境样品中极少部分(0.1% ̄1%)可培养的微生物类群,极大程度地限制了对土壤微生物群落结构的研究。
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  相似匹配句对
     Development in research methods of microbial ecology
     生物生态学研究方法进展
短句来源
     A Research on Micro Robot
     机器人的研究
短句来源
     On Micro-Location
     区位研究
短句来源
     Molecular Approaches Studying on Microbial Ecology and T-RFLP Technique
     生物生态学中分子生物学方法及T-RFLP技术研究
短句来源
     An Ecological Study of Microbes in Coking Sewage Activated Sludge
     焦化废水活性污泥中生物生态学研究
短句来源
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  study on microbial ecology
A four-year prospective study on microbial ecology of explanted prosthetic hips in 52 patients with "aseptic" prosthetic joint l
      
  studies on the microbial ecology
Recent studies on the microbial ecology of the upper gastrointestinal tract
      
Another important piece of the puzzle involves studies on the microbial ecology of the food-processing environment.
      


Due to limitation of traditional techniques that based on microbial cultivation and pure culture isolation, great advance in molecular biology and relevant technologies have made microbial ecology enter a molecular stage. The establishment of rRNA techniques and their application has opened a new page for molecular microbial ecology and systematics. Major techniques and progresses of rRNA techniques and their application in microbial ecology are reviewed in detail. Potential problems during application and...

Due to limitation of traditional techniques that based on microbial cultivation and pure culture isolation, great advance in molecular biology and relevant technologies have made microbial ecology enter a molecular stage. The establishment of rRNA techniques and their application has opened a new page for molecular microbial ecology and systematics. Major techniques and progresses of rRNA techniques and their application in microbial ecology are reviewed in detail. Potential problems during application and possible resolutions are discussed.

传统的基于微生物培养与纯种分离的技术所具有的局限性 ,以及分子生物学及其有关技术的长足进展 ,使微生物生态学的研究进入了分子的阶段。其中rRNA技术的建立、发展及其成功应用 ,为分子微生物生态和微生物系统分类学的研究掀开了崭新的一页。对rRNA分子技术的研究进展、以之为基础的主要方法及其在环境微生物研究中的应用 ,以及应用过程中所存在的一些潜在问题及其解决办法等作了详细综述

The cultivation of microbes and microscopy techniques as a means to identify microbial communities have severe limitations, since the majority of microbes in the environment are viable but nonculturable. For this reason, the methods of biochemistry and molecular biology that are independent of culturing are being widely used in the studies of microbial ecology. In this paper, fluorescent technique, PCR-based technique, PLFA technique and others to characterize diversity of microorganisms are reviewed. Fluorescence-based...

The cultivation of microbes and microscopy techniques as a means to identify microbial communities have severe limitations, since the majority of microbes in the environment are viable but nonculturable. For this reason, the methods of biochemistry and molecular biology that are independent of culturing are being widely used in the studies of microbial ecology. In this paper, fluorescent technique, PCR-based technique, PLFA technique and others to characterize diversity of microorganisms are reviewed. Fluorescence-based microscopy techniques are widely used in microbial ecology. Such techniques include fluorescent protein, fluorescence staining for total counts, viability counts and fluorescence in situ hybridizaion(FISH). The advantage of FISH is that it does not need cell lysis and easy to perform. But the result affected by the difference of the cell membrane's penetration ability. It is powerful tool for studying population dynamics, tracking microorganisms released into the environment but can't identify microorganisms has not been cultured. PCR-based techniques include PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP, PCR-DGGE. They have been the most useful in providing information about microbial communities. The greatest advantage of those methods is avoiding cultivation which solves the big obstacle “VNBC”. The technology has been well established and applied into microbial communities researches of soil, biofilms, seawater, wetlands and et al. The disadvantages caused by the storage, extraction efficiency, lysis efficiency and PCR efficiency have been solved in some extent but still need further study. PLFA and FAME are exclusively present in living cell and only in cell membranes. Since unique fatty acids are indications of specific groups, such signature molecules can be bacteria taxonomic discriminator especially FAME which has been accepted. Because fatty acids are rapidly metabolized following cell death, this method is very fit for community dynamics study. The shortcoming is that the method cannot be used to characterize microorganisms to species. Another is it need careful operation because any variation in those signatures would give rise to false community estimates created by artifacts in the methods. In some research areas, only one method cannot serve well. Synthetically use two or more methods provides favorable result and avoids intrinsical shortcomings. Summarily, the use of molecular techniques for microbial ecology research provided new understanding of microbial community. They give us a more complete picture of this area.

微生物培养及显微技术作为鉴定微生物种群的手段有很大的局限性 ,因为环境中大多数微生物处于“存活但不能培养”的状态。因此 ,不依赖于微生物培养的生物化学以及分子生物学方法正被广泛地用于微生物生态学研究。主要介绍了荧光技术 ,基于 PCR的分析技术和 PLFA等技术在表征微生物多样性研究中的某些进展

Since most species of microorganisms in soils are not cultivable in the laboratory, the investigation of their communities is a time-consuming and hard work by traditional culture procedure. Moreover, some wrong conclusions may be drawn. In the past decades, three kinds of culture-independent methods have been developed so that great progress has been made in this field. The biochemical method is to determinate the microbial communities by analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) of cell membrane. The metabolism-based...

Since most species of microorganisms in soils are not cultivable in the laboratory, the investigation of their communities is a time-consuming and hard work by traditional culture procedure. Moreover, some wrong conclusions may be drawn. In the past decades, three kinds of culture-independent methods have been developed so that great progress has been made in this field. The biochemical method is to determinate the microbial communities by analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) of cell membrane. The metabolism-based approach, through observations of the utilization patterns of 95 single-carbon sources performed on the BIOLOG microplates, can provide a lot of information about the microbial functional groups in the soils. The third method, molecular techniques, is most prevalently used to explore the microbial communities. Briefly, the molecular approach was started with the extraction and purification of total DNA from sample soils, followed by PCR-amplification of 16SrRNA gene with universal or special primers. As the analysis procedure of PCR products is different, a variety of approaches, for example, DGGE, RFLP and T-RFLP, have been established since 1990s. Among them, T-RFLP was developed based on the RFLP in 1997. This method combined ribosomal database project (RDP) into the analysis of microbial communities, and the number and constituents of species within a community were inferred just according to the number and intensity of the terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA gene. Performing T-RFLP is simple, with high resolution, and can be carried out automatically. Therefove it will play more and more important role in future research in microbial ecology of soils.

由于有相当数量的土壤微生物是目前不可培养的 ,因此利用传统培养技术来研究土壤微生物 ,不仅费时费力 ,所得到的结果可能和真实的情况相差甚远。近年来发展了三类不需培养的方法来研究土壤微生物的种类和数量 ,这些方法大体上分为生物化学、生理学和分子生物学三类。生物化学方法主要根据细胞膜磷脂酸 (PLFA)的种类和数量来判定微生物的多样性 ;BIOLOG微量板分析系统是生理学方法的代表 ,它主要是根据土样细胞悬液对 95种单一碳源的利用模式来说明群落结构的变化 ;分子生物学方法是发展应用最广的方法 ,基本步骤是提取土壤的总DNA ,然后用通用引物或选择性高的引物来扩增 16SrRNA基因。由于对扩增产物分析方法的不同 ,该方法又可分为PCR DGGE ,PCR RFLP等。最近在PCR RFLP基础上发展起来的T RFLP分析方法 ,将微生物的多样性分析工作同RDP(ribosomaldatabaseproject)数据库结合 ,充分利用了Internet的数据资源共享的优势 ,具有分辨率高 ,可实现自动化等优点 ,是未来土壤微生物生态学研究的有力工具。

 
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