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力臂
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    Objectve: The objective of this study was to analyze the cause of supraspinatus tendenitis and rotator cuff lesion through measurement of the abduction moment arms and movement locus of the supraspinatus.
    目的 :通过对冈上肌腱外展力臂和运动轨迹的研究 ,分析冈上肌腱炎的产生、肩袖损伤的成因。
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    Objectve: The objective of this study was to analyze the cause of supraspinatus tendenitis and rotator cuff lesion through measurement of the abduction moment arms and movement locus of the supraspinatus.
    目的 :通过对冈上肌腱外展力臂和运动轨迹的研究 ,分析冈上肌腱炎的产生、肩袖损伤的成因。
短句来源
    By means of X-ray measurement and STK video analyzing system, The authors carreied out a successful research of Biomechanics on the ptantedxion and dorsiflexion of ankle joint. Points out the calculation method of length of muscular and arm of force at the movment of ankle joint.
    本文利用X线摄片测量,并运用STK录像分析系统,对踝关节跖屈、背屈的生物力学特性进行了研究,并提出了构成踝关节运动的各肌肉长度、力臂变化的计算方法。
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  moment arm
These moment arms often depended on the joint position in the axis of the moment arm and, to a lesser degree, on the extension/ flexion angle as well.
      
The effect of IP flexion is linked to rotation of the force direction where joint torque switches from extension to flexion, while the effect of MCP extension is more likely related to changes in muscle length and MCP moment arm.
      
However, the directional preference (orientation) of three of the four neck muscles did not correspond to the muscle's moment arm, indicating that maximizing a muscle's mechanical advantage is not the only factor in determining muscle activation.
      
Alignment of joints with respect to the leg axis reduces the moment arm of external forces and therefore joint torques.
      
Length and moment arm of human leg muscles as a function of knee and hip-joint angles
      
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By means of X-ray measurement and STK video analyzing system, The authors carreied out a successful research of Biomechanics on the ptantedxion and dorsiflexion of ankle joint.Points out the calculation method of length of muscular and arm of force at the movment of ankle joint.

本文利用X线摄片测量,并运用STK录像分析系统,对踝关节跖屈、背屈的生物力学特性进行了研究,并提出了构成踝关节运动的各肌肉长度、力臂变化的计算方法。

The shoulder mechanism of whole-arm artificial limb accords with the appearance of human limb and the bionic machine is taken into account in terms of design structure. The function reliability is very important, because the shoulder joint should bear a considerabie torque and the shoulder mechanism has to support quite a large load force at the fore arm. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to design the shoulder mechanism. I make use of the worm gearing for realizing movement of fore flexion/back extension...

The shoulder mechanism of whole-arm artificial limb accords with the appearance of human limb and the bionic machine is taken into account in terms of design structure. The function reliability is very important, because the shoulder joint should bear a considerabie torque and the shoulder mechanism has to support quite a large load force at the fore arm. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to design the shoulder mechanism. I make use of the worm gearing for realizing movement of fore flexion/back extension at the shoulder joint. The weakness of former construction ab-out chain clearance is overcome. The force conditions are improved at the shoulder joint. The passive ring is fitted on the upper part of the artificial limb, It can lock itself at any position and make the upper part of the artificial limb with free rotation at a" range of 360 degrees. It is fitted and adjusted easily. This is a new shoulder mechanism. This method is offered exploring the whole-arm artificial limb of external power with some degrees of freedom.

全臂假肢肩关节结构,不但要符合健康人手臂的外形特征,而且在结构设计的布局上还要考虑仿生性和造型的美观逼真。由于在肩关节处要承受相当大的力矩,肩关节机构要经得起前臂的较大负载外力,所以功能可靠更为重要。因此关肩节机构的设计具有相当的难度。本机构利用蜗轮蜗杆传动的优点,来实现肩关节前屈后伸运动。克服了链传动间隙大的缺点,缩短了力臂,改善了肩关节处的受力状态,并且在假肢的上臂安装了上臂手动旋转环,其既可在任意位置自锁,又可使假肢上臂在360°范围内自由旋转。安装和使用时调节十分方便。这种新型的肩关节结构,是对多自由度外部动力全臂假肢的一种探讨。

Objectve: The objective of this study was to analyze the cause of supraspinatus tendenitis and rotator cuff lesion through measurement of the abduction moment arms and movement locus of the supraspinatus.Methods: The study was performed on 10 formalin-fixed cadaveric shoulder specimens.Supraspinatus tendon excursions was made as the humerus was abducted from 0°~180°; the distance between supraspinatus and acromion, and the thickness and width of supraspinatus tendon were measured.Then the abduction monent arms...

Objectve: The objective of this study was to analyze the cause of supraspinatus tendenitis and rotator cuff lesion through measurement of the abduction moment arms and movement locus of the supraspinatus.Methods: The study was performed on 10 formalin-fixed cadaveric shoulder specimens.Supraspinatus tendon excursions was made as the humerus was abducted from 0°~180°; the distance between supraspinatus and acromion, and the thickness and width of supraspinatus tendon were measured.Then the abduction monent arms and movement locus of the tendon were calculated.Results: During the abduction of the humerus from 0°~180°, the excursion of supraspinatus significantly decreased. The moment arm of supraspinatus was the largest when the humerus abducted from 0° to 30°;and it was the smallest when the humerus abducted from 90° to 120°,the values being 16.64±1.80 mm and 5.56±1.09 mm, respectively. The thicknesses of supraspinatus tendon were 0.49 cm (at inserition area), 0.48 cm (at critical portion) and 0.35 cm (at bellycross-sectional area), respectively.The average width of supraspinatus tendon was 2.41 cm. The distance between supraspinatus and acromion decreased with the increase of the humerus abduction. The equation of the movement locus of supraspinatus tendon was: Y(distance)=2.58-0.19x(abduction degrees). Conclusion: The moment arm of the supraspinatus tedon is the largest at the initial parts of the abduction of the arm and the distance of the tendon to the acromion decrease as the arm is abducted with a distance of zero about 60 degrees of abduction.)

目的 :通过对冈上肌腱外展力臂和运动轨迹的研究 ,分析冈上肌腱炎的产生、肩袖损伤的成因。方法 :选用 10侧经福尔马林液固定的尸体肩关节标本 ,测定肱骨从 0°~ 180°作外展运动时 ,冈上肌腱力线位移以及冈上肌腱与肩峰之间的距离变化 ;并测定冈上肌的厚度和宽度 ;计算力臂值和运动轨迹。结果 :在上臂由内收位外展的过程中 ,随着外展角度的不断增加 ,冈上肌的位移变化幅度逐渐变小。冈上肌腱在止点处、按肌腹处和临界区的平均厚度分别为 0 .49,0 .48和 0 .3 5cm。冈上肌腱的平均宽度为 2 .41cm。冈上肌腱的运动轨迹方程为Y(距离 ) =2 .5 8-0 .19x(外展角度 )。结论 :在上臂外展的起始阶段冈上肌腱的力臂变化最大 ;在上臂上展 0°~ 60°过程中 ,冈上肌腱与肩峰之间的距离随外展角度的增大而减小。

 
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