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已久
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  has been long
     Translation has been long connected to Aesthetics both in theory and practice.
     译学与美学渊源已久,无论是从理论上还是实践上,美学对翻译都有一定的借鉴意义。
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     It has been long since the argument began about the position and role of teachers and students.
     教师和学生在教学实践中的地位和作用问题争论已久
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     There has been long history and wide extent for application of small border irrigation, but theoretical research, product development and technique popularization should be enhanced.
     小畦灌的应用历史已久 ,也有较好的群众基础 ,但理论研究、产品研发、技术推广工作方兴未艾。
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     BACKGROUND:Neuroprotective role of hypothermia on cerebral ischemic reperfusional impairment has been long acknowledged.
     背景:低温对脑缺血再灌注后的神经保护效应已认识已久,但全身低温应用方法烦琐,不利于手术后患者意识及神经功能的观察。
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  “已久”译为未确定词的双语例句
     To retain many advantages of traditional method of measuring T Fe with the existence of HgCl 2 and reduce the pollution of the environment caused by HgCl 2, theory about dosage selection of HgCl 2 reduced from 5 ml to 2 ml has been studied and results of experiments have been satisfied.
     为了保持应用已久的有汞测铁经典方法中的许多优点而减轻HgCl2 对环境的污染的缺点 ,对方法中HgCl2 的用量由 5ml[1] 减少为 2ml进行理论上的探讨 ,并以试验结果加以论证
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     The library professional qualifications authentication has been discussed for long time, based on its connotation analysis,this article designs one kind of feasibility scheme of library professional qualifications authentication system and its realization guarantee which is advantageous to realize the scientific management of library human resources.
     图书馆职业资格认证讨论已久,基于其内涵的分析,设计一种可行的图书馆职业资格认证制度的方案及实现保证,将有利于实现图书馆人力资源管理的科学化。
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     On March 17, 2001, the Verified System came into effect.
     2001年3月17日,呼唤已久的核准制正式实施。
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     In recent years there have been a lot of discussions about reforms and developments of teacher education, and the expected national work conference on teacher education may be held this year.
     近年来,关于教师教育改革与发展的讨论不绝于耳,而酝酿已久的全国性的教师教育工作会议也拟于今年召开。
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     We need new design mode imminently to breakthrough the bottleneck of testing technology which have existed for a long time.
     我们迫切需要新的设计模式来突破这个存在已久的测试技术瓶颈。
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     Concept of watershed has been used in this country for a long time.
     流域的概念在泰国沿用
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     When the cDNA was expressed in E.
     该cDNA在E .
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     The problem about the nature of yin-yang has been discussed for a long time in academic cir- cles of TCM.
     阴阳的本质是中医学术界讨论的课题。
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     Qi Ji Research
     齐研究
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     Loneliness: A Perennial Sad Ballad
     孤独:吟的哀歌
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  has been long
The interpenetration of human influences on the wetland natural system has been long and close.
      
It has been long believed there should be some relations between traffic system and urbanization, but the interaction between them, especially on the regional level, has been not in consideration due to the difficulty in quantitative analysis.
      
This equation has been long accepted, but it is not easily explained.
      
The presence of salt-excreting glands in extinct marine sauropsids has been long suspected based on skull morphology.
      
It has been long considered "solved" from a probabilistic viewpoint.
      
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最优含水量~*这一指标,自从在填土实践中被发现以来,一直对土方工程起着良好作用。但是从R·R·普罗克托标准击实法提出起27年至今,对最优含水量的求取,却始终因袭击实试验这一方法。近几年来,甚至发展到用工地辗压试验法来求取它。这样的发展方向,不是使工作趋向既精确又简化,而是毫无必要地使工程的准备工作更为复杂,代价更大。作者企图改变这一倾向,因而对此问题收集了大量资料进行研究。本文即为这些资料的归纳结果:各国采用已久的击实试验,已可从此取消,今后相宜含水量或相宜干容重的求取,可以直接利用本文推荐的经验公式来计算。这样的计算,不仅简单迅速,而且算得的数值在工程实用上,也十分准确。文中特别推荐利用自然含水量的土来作填方,这是符合我国大跃进的情况的。在此情况下,土方工程的数量必然十分庞大,在试验的时间和设备上,必然不能及时地满足设计和施工的需要。此时,本文推荐的公式,就显得有更大的实用意义,根本改变这一情况。

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自从纺织厂采用空调室降温设备后,对于纺织厂内是否尚有使用喷雾设备的价值问题争论已久,一直未获解决,本文详细地讨论了在纺织厂使用喷雾设备的价值范围,系统地指出在车间内各种不同要求情况下,使用喷雾设备的意义和其价值的大小,最后制订成—联合图算表,可以用极简单的方法来求出车间内有无使用喷雾设备的价值和需要喷雾量的大小,设备容量、及经济价值的大小等等,因此,可由图上得到的一个如何使用喷雾设备的完整概念和计算方法。

In the present paper, the following five systematic steps for microidentification of organic compounds have been studied: 1. Detection of elements: A rapid and simple micro-method was developed for the detection of fourteen important hetero-elements(N, F, Cl, Br, I, S, P, As, Sb, Hg, Si, Sn, B, Fe)in organic compounds. The sample having been broken down by Schoniger oxygen-flask combustion, the resulting ions were separated and detected by using Weisz ring oven technique. Several color reactions for the detection...

In the present paper, the following five systematic steps for microidentification of organic compounds have been studied: 1. Detection of elements: A rapid and simple micro-method was developed for the detection of fourteen important hetero-elements(N, F, Cl, Br, I, S, P, As, Sb, Hg, Si, Sn, B, Fe)in organic compounds. The sample having been broken down by Schoniger oxygen-flask combustion, the resulting ions were separated and detected by using Weisz ring oven technique. Several color reactions for the detection of nitrate, sulfate and halogen ions on ring oven have been modified to improve the selectivities as well as sensitivities. The detection limits for elements were 0.01 to 1μg in sample weighing 50—500 wg(cf Table 1, 3, 4, 5 in the Chinese text). 2. Determination of physical constants: Triphenyl silanol(m. p. 155.5℃, K=15)and triphenyl phosphine(m. p.79.5℃, K=12)have been proved to be suitable solvents in micro Rast cryscopic molecular weight determination for elemento-organic compounds. 3. Classification tests: The traditional classification by solubility has been modified for micro-analysis in two respects:(i)two new in. dicators were employed to classify the acids and bases instead of testing the solubilities in reaction solvents. Our indicators seemed to be more sensitive than those suggested by Davidson(cf. Table 8—10);(ii)Oxygen-containing compounds were detected by Ferrox test instead of testing solubility in conc. sulfuric acid. In order to increase the sensitivity of detection, the micro-technique of using ion-exchanger or silica gel grains as reaction media was employed. 4. Detection of functional groups: Based on the principle of ring-oven technique, a more simply constructed“Pinch-Clamp Line Oven”was designed. Some common organic functional groups(acid anhydrides, acid halides, alcohols, aldehydes, amines, amino acids, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, esters, glycols, ketones, phenols)have been detected with this specific tool.(see Table 11). 5. Preparation of derivatives: The specific reagents for identifying aldehydes, 1,2-bis anilino ethane(DAE)and 1,2-bis(p-bromo benzyl amino)ethane(DBE)heve been studied. Owing to its higher molecular weight and the lower solubilities of its aldehyde derivatives, DBE seemed to be more suitable than DAE for the micro-iden-ti fication of water-insoluble aldehydes in organic mediums. Aldehyde derivatives prepared from the two reagents could be charact-erized not only by their sharp melting points(see Table 12)but also by their well-defined crystalline forms. Thirty-two photomic-rographs of these crystalline derivatives have been taken for this purpose(see fig 2—33). The neutral equivalent weights of DAE and DBE derivatives determined by non-aqueous titration will be added as further aid in identi-fication. A micro-manipulation for titration was developed.

1.用氧瓶燃烧法与环炉技术相结合检定了有机化合物中14种重要杂元素,检出限度为0.01—1微克,样品取量50微克至500微克。 2.提出了用三苯基硅甲醇(K=15)及三苯基膦(K=12)作为Rast法测定分子量的溶剂,适合于测定某些元素有机化合物的分子量。 3.用两种灵敏度较高的指示剂于分组试验,并放进了硫氰酸铁试氧法,使分组系统与习用已久的溶解度分组系统相同,而试验方法适合于微量分析。 4.用线炉技术检定了12种重要有机功能团。 5.合成了1,2-二(对溴苄氨基)乙烷作为鉴定醛类的专属性试剂,用它制备了二十余科醛类衍生物,熔点一般分布在75—210℃之间。并摄制了这些衍生物与用1,2-二苯氨基乙烷制得的醛类衍生物共三十余种结晶的显微照片,进行化学显微鉴定。提出了微量非水滴定测定这些衍生物中和当量的方法。

 
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