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     Study on the Approaches to Automated Parts Manufacturability Evaluation for Concurrent Engineering
     面向并行工程的零件可制造性评价方法研究
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     The Research of Traffic Engineering Over MPLS Networks and IP Networks
     MPLS及IP网络流量工程的研究
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     Basic and Experimental Study of MSCs Transfected with IGF-1 Gene on the Periodontal Tissue Engineering
     IGF-1基因转染骨髓基质细胞应用于牙周组织工程的基础与动物实验研究
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     Modeling and Analysis for Agent-Oriented Requirement Engineering
     面向Agent需求工程的建模与分析
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     Research on the Key Technique of Concurrent Engineering Oriented Product Development Process
     面向并行工程的产品开发过程关键技术研究
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     Research on Loss Compensation Theory and Methods with Hydropower Right Transfer of the Western of South-to-North Water Project
     南水北调西线工程的水力发电权转让及损益补偿理论与方法研究
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     Planning and Construction of the "Front Three Gates" Housing Project
     前三门住宅工程的规划与建设
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     Join Use of Ground and Surface Water in Irrigation Project
     灌溉工程的地面水和地下水联合运用
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     The 0—1 Goal Programming Method for Choosing Bid Project
     选择投标工程的0—1目标规划方法
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     STUDIES OP THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OP THE NANJING GUQUAN RURAL ECOLOGICAL PROJECT I. The design and construction of the Guquan ExperimantulFarm of Rural Ecological Engineering
     南京古泉农村生态工程设计和建设的研究 Ⅰ、古泉农村生态工程的设计和建设
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     Research on Iocation Control of GPS in High-rise Building Construction
     高层及超高层建筑工程的GPS定位控制研究
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     Structure Analysis and Research of Jinma (Gloden Horse) Bridge
     金马大桥工程的结构分析与研究
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     Study of Seeded Cells of Cartilage Tissue Engineering-Immortalization of Human Articular Chondrocytes and Their Characteristics
     软骨组织工程的种子细胞研究—人关节软骨细胞的永生化及其生物学特性
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     An Intelligence Engineering-Based Integrated Intelligent Designing System and Its Application in Clocks and Watches Design
     基于智能工程的集成化智能设计系统及其在钟手表设计中的应用
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     THE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOLVING THE COMPLETE PLANE STRAIN PROBLEM IN UNDERGROUND EXCAVTIONS
     地下开挖工程的全平面应变问题的边界元法
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That such a factorization is possible is well-known to algebraists (and expressed by the formulaSL(n;R[z, z-1])=E(n;R[z, z-1])); it is also used in linear systems theory in the electrical engineering community.
      
Frames have applications in numerous fields of mathematics and engineering.
      
It is closely related to practical engineering problems.
      
Biomimetic strengthening polylactide scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering
      
The biomimetic three-dimensional porous composite can serve as a kind of excellent scaffold material for bone tissue engineering because of its microstructure and properties.
      
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crassifolia) in rehabilitated fields benefit greatly from the restoration project.
      
The implementation of the CCFG project is important for the increase in RENI and the multiple functions of plant roots.
      
Based on the methods of landscape ecology and ecological planning, this paper develops a zoning project of ecosystem functions suitable for various environments.
      
Quantitative site classification in the key county in the conversion of farmland to forests project
      
We concluded that the conversion project from croplands to forests and grasslands based on scientific principles is very important in the formation of carbon sinks for reducing greenhouse effects.
      
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It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter...

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter of principle, the point of application should never be slighted while the obliquity of the earth pressure could only have a value that is compatible with the conditions for equilibrium. (2) If the point of application of the soil reaction is taken into account in the problem, the sliding wedge would only tend to slide either on the plane of sliding or on the surface of wall but not on both at the same time, thus frustrating the very conceptidn of sliding wedge upon which Coulomb's Theory is founded. (3) The above discrepancies arise from the fact that the shape of the surface of sliding should be curvilinear in order to make the wedge tend to slide as desired, while Coulomb, however, adopted a plane surface instead. (4) Coulomb, in finding the plane of sliding, made use of the maximum earth pressure on the wall (for active pressure), which refers to the different magnitudes of pressure corresponding to different assumed inclinations of the plane of sliding. But from the relation between the yield of wall and amount of pressure, this maximum value is really the minimum pressure on the wall, which it is the purpose of the theory to find. In engineering books, however, this terminology of maximum pressure has caused considerable confusion, with the result that what is really the minimum pressure is carelessly taken as the maximum design load for the wall. How can a minimum load be used in a design?This paper also attempts to clarify some contended points in Rankine's Theory: (1) It is claimed by Prof. Terzaghi that Rankine's Theory is only a fallacy because of the yield of wall and that of the soil mass on its bed. This charge is unjust as it can be compared with Coulomb's Theory in the same respect. (2) Some books declare that Rankine's Theory is good only for walls with vertical back, but it is proved in this paper that this is not so. (3) It is also generally believed that Rankine's Theory is applicable only to wall surfaces with no friction. This is likewise taken by this paper as unfounded and illustration is given whereby, in this regard, Rankine's Theory is even better than Coulomb's, because it contains no contradiction, as does Coulomb's.

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。...

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。(2)有些工程書中認為朗金理論是專為垂直的墙?

Computation of vertical stress in soil beneath loaded area is greatly simplified by influence chart, which was proposed by N. M. Newmark in 1942.The main purpose of this paper is to present a method to modify the Newmark's chart. Instead of the concentric circles in the original chart, concentric squares are used. The latter is more convenient to estimate number of blocks. Further, a so-called "influence value curve" is introduced to avoid different tracings for different depths at which stress is computed.The...

Computation of vertical stress in soil beneath loaded area is greatly simplified by influence chart, which was proposed by N. M. Newmark in 1942.The main purpose of this paper is to present a method to modify the Newmark's chart. Instead of the concentric circles in the original chart, concentric squares are used. The latter is more convenient to estimate number of blocks. Further, a so-called "influence value curve" is introduced to avoid different tracings for different depths at which stress is computed.The influence chart with concentric squares for computing vertical deformation in subgrade soil is also discussed.

推算地基土壤由於建築物重量所引起的應力和變形,是估計建築物沉陷的必經步驟。利用感應圖的計塊法來推求應力和變形,紐馬克教授曾先後於1942年和1947年發表。這種方法,特別是以感應圖求土壤中的垂直應力,當遇到不規則形的建築物基礎時,或研究各基脚相互間的應力影響時,工程界採用的很多。本文主要內容是對感應圖圖解法提出下面四點改進的方法,以便利地基和基礎的設計工作:一.原方法的應力感應圖由若干同心圆形圈所組成,本文改用許多同心正方形,使估計不成整塊的塊數時,比較準確。二.筆者製成“感應值曲線”。當需要計算不同深度處的垂直應力,基礎平面圖祇需根據其中某一深度為比例尺繪製,其他深度處的垂直應力,可根據感應值曲線求得。這樣,避免原方法中每個深度耍繪不同的基礎平面圖以及每次計點塊數的麻煩。三.當地基土壤屬於不允許横向膨脹狀態,本文根據e-p曲線所得的壓縮公式,製成多條曲線,以便利計算。四.當地基土壤可假定屬於彈性狀態時,筆者製成正方形的變形感應圖,以便利彈性地基上具有不規則形基礎的建築物的沉陷計算。

In this paper, the author proposes a simplified method for designing concrete mix. In this method cement paste is considered as one ingredient instead of two separate ingredients——cement and water. The function of cement paste in fresh concrete is that a large portion of the paste fills the void space in the mixed fine and coarse aggregates, and only a small portion coats the surface of the aggregate particles. Therefore the required amount of cement paste is predominantly determined by the void space of the...

In this paper, the author proposes a simplified method for designing concrete mix. In this method cement paste is considered as one ingredient instead of two separate ingredients——cement and water. The function of cement paste in fresh concrete is that a large portion of the paste fills the void space in the mixed fine and coarse aggregates, and only a small portion coats the surface of the aggregate particles. Therefore the required amount of cement paste is predominantly determined by the void space of the mixed aggregates. The important problem is how to determine the relative amounts of fine and coarse aggregates and cement paste per unit volume of concrete so as to achieve the required strength, durability, workability and economy.

設計混擬土配合比的方法很多,有繁有簡,繁的需要很多試驗与計算,簡的編成配合此表,祇需按表試配。新的方法还在不断創造,趨向于簡化試驗与計算手續,但又要能切合实际,容易得到符合要求的配合比。早在1948~1949年,作者根据混凝土組成原理,——絕大部分水泥漿是用來填充砂石间空隙,很小部分用來包裹砂石粒面及超潤滑作用——先求得最小砂石混合空隙率,加一常数,就可定出最經济水泥漿量,經过試配,確定最終配合比。1951~1952年,幾处工地試用,当時祇能做出水灰此为0.7坍落度3—7厘米的混凝土。1953~1954年,通过学習苏联混凝土技術,將本法發展到適用於各种要求的混凝土,即灰水比坍落度可任意改变,形成目前較完善的形式,合於工地及試驗室採用。本法在选定灰水比及坍落度後,祇需2—3步即可求出配合此,並算出材料用量;本法計算簡便,祇用兩个簡單的表(表1和表3);本法在進行中有自己校核的作用,計算秤量中如有錯誤容易查出。本法祇需極簡單的設备,易於学習,在大同及大伙房水庫工地祇經一小時的講解,試驗員即会应用。本法通过試配,应用的理論和數据都有正確根据,所以結果能切合实际。希望大家試用研究,提出改進意見,使本法日趨完善,並能逐...

設計混擬土配合比的方法很多,有繁有簡,繁的需要很多試驗与計算,簡的編成配合此表,祇需按表試配。新的方法还在不断創造,趨向于簡化試驗与計算手續,但又要能切合实际,容易得到符合要求的配合比。早在1948~1949年,作者根据混凝土組成原理,——絕大部分水泥漿是用來填充砂石间空隙,很小部分用來包裹砂石粒面及超潤滑作用——先求得最小砂石混合空隙率,加一常数,就可定出最經济水泥漿量,經过試配,確定最終配合比。1951~1952年,幾处工地試用,当時祇能做出水灰此为0.7坍落度3—7厘米的混凝土。1953~1954年,通过学習苏联混凝土技術,將本法發展到適用於各种要求的混凝土,即灰水比坍落度可任意改变,形成目前較完善的形式,合於工地及試驗室採用。本法在选定灰水比及坍落度後,祇需2—3步即可求出配合此,並算出材料用量;本法計算簡便,祇用兩个簡單的表(表1和表3);本法在進行中有自己校核的作用,計算秤量中如有錯誤容易查出。本法祇需極簡單的設备,易於学習,在大同及大伙房水庫工地祇經一小時的講解,試驗員即会应用。本法通过試配,应用的理論和數据都有正確根据,所以結果能切合实际。希望大家試用研究,提出改進意見,使本法日趨完善,並能逐漸推廣,在混凝土工程中發揮墳產節約与保證質量的作用。

 
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