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    Research on Loss Compensation Theory and Methods with Hydropower Right Transfer of the Western of South-to-North Water Project
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crassifolia) in rehabilitated fields benefit greatly from the restoration project.
      
The implementation of the CCFG project is important for the increase in RENI and the multiple functions of plant roots.
      
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Quantitative site classification in the key county in the conversion of farmland to forests project
      
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In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability of...

In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability of occurrence corresponding to the flood, nevertheless, the data based upon are direct, and so the errors are low in comparison with those of indirect methods, such as the hydro-meteorological and the analogical, which might even yield radically unreliable results. Besides, in the statistical method of estimating flood flows, this method has been used to supplement those extraordinary flood data not recorded in history and yet valuable for statistics.The current method of estimating flood discharges from its trace assumes the state of steady flow and its velocity formula, from which it is impossible to obtain the maximum discharge that actually happens in the state of unsteady flow, and is only possible to calculate the discharge at maximum water level smaller than the peak discharge. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the current method and suggests another means of estimating by taking average of the upper and lower limits of the maximum discharge. The error of estimation in the new method will not be over 17% by analysis, which, as compared with the standard of allowable error in hydrometrical survey, is not considerable.

工程設計中,欲在未經水文測驗的河流上定出設計用的洪水流率,依据洪水痕跡估算是唯一此較可靠而近似的方法。这方法只須調查洪水痕跡,測量其坡度及过水断面,估計河槽糙度,就可代入水力学中的公式而算出流速和流率,虽然这样所得的結果未必准确,且無从得知这次洪水相应的概率,但所憑借的资料是直接的,因而誤差的程度此較还小;不象水文气象法从雨量間接推算,或各种此照法依据其他流域的資料間接估計,可能得出很不可靠的結果。在流率資料統計法中,这方法也曆来增补那些历史上未曾测得的特大的可貴的洪水流率資料。 現行从洪水痕跡估算流率的方法假設了水力学中穩定流的流速公式,不能得出实际發生的不定流中的最大流率,而只約略算出那較小的最高水位吋的流率,憑以設計工程是不安全的。本文分析了現行方法的缺点所在,建議另一估算的方法,从最大流率的上下兩極限值取其平均数以估計之。新的方法的沽算誤差,循理推論,不会超过17%;衡以流速仪測量流率的許可誤差标准,並不算大。

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磨子潭水库是淠河上游的一个水库,在佛子岭水库以上,水库的任务是防洪和发电,总库容2.88亿公方,水电装机16,000瓩,年度能6,102万度,防洪方面配合佛子岭溢洪道扩大工程可保障佛子岭壩身千年一遇洪水不漫顶。控制流域面积670平方公里,枢纽工程有大体积肋墩壩一座,计划壩长343公尺,最大壩高约80公尺,隧洞一道,溢洪道一座,水电钢管一道及水电站一座,水库工程从1956年开工,目前正在浇筑壩体混凝土.大体积肋墩壩是一种比较新型的支撑壩,迄今仅有50多年历史,据我们现有资料统计,世界上已建成的约有30余座,最高者为110公尺,这种壩型的构造型式和结构性能在重力壩和薄型支撑壩(如连拱壩,平板壩)之间,也具备两者的优点,是一种很有前途的壩型。在进行大体积肋墩壩设计之初,先要选定各个肋墩的主要尺度,包括:(1)挡水面宽度,(2)上下游面坡度和(3)断面尺寸等三项,按照在同时满足稳定和应力的要求下,使整个壩的总造价为最小的原则来进行选择;挡水面的宽度宜尽量增大,但应考虑肋墩头部混凝土的温度和收缩影响。断面尺寸的最小厚度,应能满足抗渗耐久、施工以及国防的要求。上下游面坡度与肋墩断面尺寸或体积数量有关,应由稳定,应力及经济...

磨子潭水库是淠河上游的一个水库,在佛子岭水库以上,水库的任务是防洪和发电,总库容2.88亿公方,水电装机16,000瓩,年度能6,102万度,防洪方面配合佛子岭溢洪道扩大工程可保障佛子岭壩身千年一遇洪水不漫顶。控制流域面积670平方公里,枢纽工程有大体积肋墩壩一座,计划壩长343公尺,最大壩高约80公尺,隧洞一道,溢洪道一座,水电钢管一道及水电站一座,水库工程从1956年开工,目前正在浇筑壩体混凝土.大体积肋墩壩是一种比较新型的支撑壩,迄今仅有50多年历史,据我们现有资料统计,世界上已建成的约有30余座,最高者为110公尺,这种壩型的构造型式和结构性能在重力壩和薄型支撑壩(如连拱壩,平板壩)之间,也具备两者的优点,是一种很有前途的壩型。在进行大体积肋墩壩设计之初,先要选定各个肋墩的主要尺度,包括:(1)挡水面宽度,(2)上下游面坡度和(3)断面尺寸等三项,按照在同时满足稳定和应力的要求下,使整个壩的总造价为最小的原则来进行选择;挡水面的宽度宜尽量增大,但应考虑肋墩头部混凝土的温度和收缩影响。断面尺寸的最小厚度,应能满足抗渗耐久、施工以及国防的要求。上下游面坡度与肋墩断面尺寸或体积数量有关,应由稳定,应力及经济等各项比较计算确定,在初步比较时,肋墩挡水面宽度对肋墩基本断面的厚度的比值 S 应根据肋墩的最大高度,最小厚度及最大挡水面宽度而定。上下游面坡度对体积数量的关系,可利用肋墩的基本断面(即假定肋墩为一平均等厚三角形断面)来计算,按照不同的 S 值在满足稳定和上游面不发生拉应力的条件下可直接定出最小的体积数量和相应的上下游面坡度,再作进一步断面尺寸的比较。经过比较,磨壩采用的各项尺度,按最大挡水面宽度18公尺,肋墩最小厚度2.8公尺选定结果为:上游面坡度在壩高80~20公尺为1∶0.5,20~10公尺为1∶0.4,10公尺以上为1∶0.3,下游面坡度为1∶0.4,断面尺寸(详见图7断面Ⅲ)大体积肋墩壩的稳定分析包括(1)抗滑稳定的核算(2)横向地震时倾复稳定和应力的校核(3)肋墩横向自由振动周期的计算(4)肋墩抵抗纵向弯曲的计算,磨壩稳定分析成果为:(1)抗滑稳定安全系数的最小值,Kc=1.0(f=0.7,c=0);K′_c=4.44(f_o=0.65,c=31公斤/公分~2);K_щ=1.03(谢尔康诺夫计算法);Kck=1.56;(2)抗横向倾复安全系数的最小值 K_o=5.40,横向地震时肋墩底部正应力σYmin1.20公斤/公分~2(压应力),(3)肋墩横向自由振动周期(最大值)T_o=0.366秒(E=2.6×10~6公斤/公分~2),0.466秒(E=1.6×10~6公斤/公分~2)(4)抗纵向弯曲安全系数(取壩高20公尺处平行下游面的截取断面)ξ=9.4。大体积肋墩壩的应力分析是研究各个肋墩内应力分布的情况,肋墩的应力分析严格地说应该是一个三向的问题。目前一般将肋墩分成若干个平面问题来研究,一为肋墩在与壩轴垂直的平面问题(即壩身侧向断面),一为与上述平面相正交,垂直于上游面的平面问题,前者用以研究肋墩平面的应力,后者则为研究肋墩头部的应力。肋墩平面的应力分析一般采用(1)应力函数法(2)几何法和(3)简捷法,磨壩采用简捷法分析。肋墩头部的应力采用应力函数法的有限差分方程计算,(即纲格法)。磨壩肋墩平面应力分析结果。肋墩内最大第一主应力在壩高80公尺(下游面)为28.7公斤/平方公分,最小第二主应力在壩高80公尺(肋墩中部)为-2.3公斤/平方公分。最大主切应力为14.53公斤/平方公分。壩体施工原来是用隧洞一期导流,但由于隧洞开工时间较迟,来不及待它鑿通后再进行围壩合龙闭气和壩基清理,后来改用三期导流的办法,第一第二期是在左右各半个河床内导流,第三期是在壩身内预留的二个底孔和隧洞中导流。这样就使得壩基土方石方的开挖和混凝土的浇筑有可能可以分区进行交义作业,大大提前了施工的进度。壩基开挖都采用鑽孔爆炸,最后用人工将震裂松动的石块全面加以剥除整修。壩基的土方工程由于二山复盖层很厚,最深处达18公尺,为加速风化土石层的开挖曾采用小型洞室爆破,效果良好,并不影响壩的基础,混凝土粗骨料采用河床中的卵石,最大粒径采用150公厘,河水经化验有浸蚀性,故渗加白土混合材。~#500普通水泥中掺加20%,仍能满足强度,抗冻(M_(30))抗渗(B_9)的要求。水泥加混合材在每公方混凝土中的用量~#170(九十天强度)为160公斤,水灰比为0.65。~#140(九十天强度)为149公斤,水灰比为0.7。混凝土熟料均用小矿车输送,壩身下面20公尺高部分全用排架桥向下翻倒浇筑,排架以上部分用钢塔升高,二山坡用卷扬道,二山顶则另有拌和场,壩身混凝土的最高日浇筑量为25,00公方,最高月浇筑量为45,000公方,从1956年12月起开始浇混凝土到1957年7月水库可起拦洪作用.

This paper discusses some problems which are found to be important in designing the arch dam of the Liv-Hsi-Ho-hydroelectrical power station. The arch dam under discussion has a max. height of 82 m and spans 255. m, situated in a V-shaped valley. It is an overflow arch dam of the various radius and thickness type. The technical design has been nearly finished and the dam is now under construction. The first problem discussed is the investigation of the stability of arch dam under various ioads when the dam...

This paper discusses some problems which are found to be important in designing the arch dam of the Liv-Hsi-Ho-hydroelectrical power station. The arch dam under discussion has a max. height of 82 m and spans 255. m, situated in a V-shaped valley. It is an overflow arch dam of the various radius and thickness type. The technical design has been nearly finished and the dam is now under construction. The first problem discussed is the investigation of the stability of arch dam under various ioads when the dam is rested on a rock foundation with unexpected jointe and cracks. Methods and formulas for the determination of stability factors are recommended. Then the paper reviews the various methods of stress andlysis of arch dams now in use and finds that the cantilever-arch method (or so called the trial load method) is a suitable one. An amphified procedure is suggested, with this procedure and by means of certain tables of founda- tion and arch deformation constanis, the analysis of stressos and deflections of a circular arch including the effect of foundation deformation can be simplified greately without sacrifyinq dccuracy. The necessdry tables needed in analysis will be presented in an dnother paper. The problems of temperature control and temperature stresses determination are also impor- lant ones in arch dam design and construction. This paper discusses the vdrious principles of temperature control and method of computation, and describes the one accepted in this dam. The priciples of analysis of temperature stresses of arch dams are discussed in detail. Finally the problem of discharginq floods over the arch dam is described in brief. The design work in this respect has not been finished, further investigations and model tests are roquired.

本文旨在论述流溪河拱壩工程在设计中一些主要问题。拱壩最大壩高82公尺,壩顶弧长255.5公尺,位于一V形山谷中。壩体大不同半径和厚度拱壩并采用壩顶溢流形式。工程设计及施工已接近完成。本文首先探讨了拱壩壩头岩基具有节理和裂隙时在不同荷载下的稳定问题。推荐了决定系数的方法和公式。其后就现有的拱壩各种放力分析方法进行了论述并认力悬臂拱法(或称试载法)较为适用。本文对于试载法提出了改进步骤,利用这些改进步骤并借用一定数量的基础和拱圈变形常数表则计算应力分析和包括基础变形的圆拱变位可大大简化并无损其精度。在分析中所需数表将另著文介绍。控制拱壩温度和确定温度应力问题在拱壩设计和施工中也极关重要。本文论述了温度控制的各种原理和计算方法,并描述了本工程所采用的措施。对于拱壩温度应力的分析原理曾加论述。最后曾就拱壩壩顶溢流问题加以简述。有关此项新颖问题的设计,需待进一步研究并进行模型试验。

 
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