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     Study on the Biological Characteristics of Alternaria Alternata Japanese Pear Pathotype and Its Bio-Chemical Control Technique
     梨黑斑病菌(Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype)生物学特性及其生物—化学协同控制技术的研究
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     The theoretics of androgenesis and sex control in zebrafish (Danio rerio), which was the latest model animal, were studied.
     本文通过利用模式生物——斑马鱼(Danio rerio)进行了雄核发育(Androgenesis)及其通过雄核发育进行鱼类性别控制的基础理论研究。
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     To study gas hydrate,Germany has developed foremost projects from geology,geophysics,geochemistry and biology of the hydrate,and particularly put emphasis on in-situ and high-resolution observation to study micro-geo-bio-chemistry.
     从天然气水合物的地质、地球物理、地球化学到生物学各个领域,德国都开展了非常前沿性的研究,特别注重应用原位观测和高分辨率测量(In-situ&High Resolution Observation)技术,开展地质—生物—地球化学的微观特征(Micro-Geo-Bio-Chemistry)研究。
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     Through such aspects as the status, the mode of thinking and practical sports, teaching, ideology and value, the valuable multi-dimensional concept is produced to increase the development of school's P.E theory and practice.
     为推动当前学校体育理论与实践的发展,应确立与时代同步的新的学校体育观念,即:在地位上,应树立学校体育基础观; 在思维方式上和体育实践活动模式上,应树立学校体育多维观如生物—心理—社会三维体育观;
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     Hospice care was a new mode of“biology-society-psychology”medical service.
     临终关怀作为一种新的卫生服务提供方式,是适应“生物—社会—心理”模式的服务行为之一。
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     Biological Calcification
     生物钙化作用
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     Bio-Mass Spectrometry
     生物质谱
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     Biopreservative-Bacteriocins
     生物防腐剂细菌素
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     Organic Pesticides-Yinlian
     生物农药印楝
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Combustion and emissions of the diesel engine using bio-diesel fuel
      
The combustion and heat release of engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel have been investigated.
      
The economic performance and emission features of diesel engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel are compared.
      
The results also show that the specific fuel consumption of bio-diesel increases by about 12%.
      
Theory of bio-energy transport in protein molecules and its experimental evidences as well as applications (I)
      
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A new method for the biological assay of vegetable purgatives based on the numbers of wet faeces excreted by groups of mice after dosing is described. The relation of the number of wet faeces per group of mice to the logarithm of the dose was found to be linear. A cage has been specially designed for this assay and it has been found advantageous to incorporate a definite proportion of water in the diet during test. 40 mice divided equally into 4 groups were used in each assay. 2 groups received the standard...

A new method for the biological assay of vegetable purgatives based on the numbers of wet faeces excreted by groups of mice after dosing is described. The relation of the number of wet faeces per group of mice to the logarithm of the dose was found to be linear. A cage has been specially designed for this assay and it has been found advantageous to incorporate a definite proportion of water in the diet during test. 40 mice divided equally into 4 groups were used in each assay. 2 groups received the standard preparation and the other 2 groups received the test preparation. The standard deviation of a single determination based on 9 such assays was estimated to be 15.7 per cent. For rhubarb and its preparations, a“6-point”assay is advocated. With suitable restric-tion in the design of the assay, it is possible to calculate the potency by simple methods. Powdered crude drugs are used as laboratory standards in the assay of senna and rhubarb. The doses of cascara bark required to produce distinctive responses are too inconveniently large to be administered in suspension. It was found possible to use a potent extract of cascara in place of the powdered bark as a laboratory standard. Examples of the assay and the subsequent calculations are given. The method described is not only convenient in use but also gives a comparatively high degree of accuracy. The method has been successfully applied to senna leaf, senna fruit, rhubarb, cascara sagrada and extracts and commercial preparations made from these drugs, pure glycosides(sennosides A and B) and pure anthracene compounds(aloe emodin and aloe-emodine anthranol).

(1)本文详述植物性泻药的一种新的生物测定法,此法係用小白鼠在服药后所排出的濕粪数为基础,以定泻药的效价。(2)小白鼠服药後所排出的湿粪数与剂量指数的关係经证明为一直线。(3)本法所用鼠笼係特别设计,并证明在饲料内加入一定量的饮水,具有多种优点。(4)番泻效价的测定,每次用小白鼠4组,每组10只。2组给与标准品,另外2组给与试验品。根据9次试验的结果,试验的标准差是15.7%.(5)大黄效价的测定,以采用“6点”法为宜,即每次试验用小白鼠6组,3组给与标准品,另外3组给与试验品,所得的准确度与上述相仿。波希鼠李皮浸膏的效价测定,则用“4点”法或“6点”法均可。(6)所有试验一律采用粉状生药为实验室的比较标准,但是波希鼠李皮的效价太低,它的粉末不适於作为标准之用,可用波希鼠李皮乾浸膏来代替,作为比较标准。(7)本文对於效价测定及其计算方法都举例说明,并介绍了比较常法为简捷的相关效价计算法。(8)本法不但方便易行,而且有相当高的准确度;曾用在番泻、大黄、波希鼠李皮及其制剂,以及一些纯粹的蒽醌衍生物的效价测定,都获得了满意的结果。

Coilia mystus (L.) is a small fish of economic importance, belonging to the Family Engraulidae. It occurs abundantly along the coast of Amoy and vicinity. The present investigation was undertaken with the chief object of finding out the compostion of food and its seasonal variation. A total of 612 stomachs were examined; of these, only 22 stomachs were found to be empty. The following are the results of the investigation:(1) Coilia mystus feeds chiefly upon planktonic Crustacea, of which Copepoda is, by far,...

Coilia mystus (L.) is a small fish of economic importance, belonging to the Family Engraulidae. It occurs abundantly along the coast of Amoy and vicinity. The present investigation was undertaken with the chief object of finding out the compostion of food and its seasonal variation. A total of 612 stomachs were examined; of these, only 22 stomachs were found to be empty. The following are the results of the investigation:(1) Coilia mystus feeds chiefly upon planktonic Crustacea, of which Copepoda is, by far, the most important, constituting no less than 75.9% of total food. Of the 15 species of Copepoda identified, Paracalanus pqrvus, Pseudodiaptomus marinus and Tortanus forcipata are relatively more important than the others. Among other Crustacea, the relative importance of various groups Is of the following order: Decapoda (including Lucifer and Brachyuran larvae) > Mysidae > Euphau-siacea > Amphipoda > Ostracoda > Cumacea > Stomatopoda. Next to Crustacea in the order of importance of food conic Chaetognatha and fish ova, the former being the more important of the two. Judging from the composition of food, Coilia mystus is a plankton-feeder.(2) The composition of food is more or less subject to seasonal variation. The order of numerical importance of various groups* in the four seasons is as follows: SPRING (Mar.-May): Copepoda > fish ova > Decapoda > Amphipoda > Mysidae> Euphausiacea > Cumacea> Stomatopoda, young fish. SUMMER (Junc-Aug.): Copcpoda> fish ova> Decapoda >Mysidae> Amphipoda> Euphausiacea > Cumacea > young fish.AUTUMN (Scpt.-Nov.): Copepoda > Decapoda > Mysidae > Ostracoda > Euphausiacea > Amphipoda > Stomatopoda > young fish.WINTER (Dec.-Feb.): Copepoda > Decapoda > Euphausiacea > Cumacea > fishova > Mysidae > Amphipoda > young fish > Stomatopoda. (3) The composition of food varies with age or length (from the tip of snout to the end of body, exclusive of caudal fin) of fish which appears to he related to the density of gill-rakers. The younger fishes (less than 15 cm. in length) with denser gill-rakers (2.0-2.7 rakers per 1 mm.) feed largely upon smaller crustaceans (Cope-poda); whilst the older fishes (over 15 cm. in length) with sparser gill-rakers (1.4 1.9 rakers per 1 mm.) feed largely upon larger crustaceans (Mysidae, Euphausiacea, Stomatopdda, Decapoda). It shows that increase in the size of fish is associated with increrase in the size of food animals eaten.(4) There exists a fairly close agreement between the composition of food and the composition of plankton in the surrounding waters. During the months of March and November when both fish and plankton were collected at the same time off Hai-Chen near Amoy, Copepoda was found to be the most dominant group in both food and plankton. It shows that the fish fed heavily upon those crustaceans occurring most abundantly in the plankton. In this respect, Coilia mystus exercises no selectivity of food. The writers are of the opinion that abundance and availability rather than selection by the fish determine the species of animal eaten.(5) A comparison of the food of Coilia mystus with that of other Clupeoids in Amoy waters reveals the predominance of Copepoda in the diet of most of these fishes. For the sake of increasing the yield of these economic fishes, it is essential to enhance the production of Copepoda in nature by artificial means such as to fertilize the water with nutrient salts, especially phosphates and nitrates, to increase the production of phytoplankton which will, in turn, lead to the higher production of Copepoda.

1.六丝鲚的食料差不多完全是浮游动物,以甲壳类为主,其中以桡足类为最重要、十足类(包括莹虾)次之,糠虾类,端足类,磷虾类更次之。除甲壳类以外,它还捕食很多毛头类和鱼卵,所以六丝鲚应属蜉食性的鱼类。 2.六丝鲚的食料成份有季节变化,不过不很显著:春夏两季以桡足类为主,鱼卵次之,十足类(包括短尾类幼虫)更次之。秋季以桡足类为主,十足类(包括莹虾和短尾类幼虫)次之,糠虾更次之。冬季以桡足类为主,十足类次之,磷虾类更次之。总的来看,桡足类在四季食料中都占了绝对优势。六丝的次要食料则随季节而异;春夏两季是鱼卵,秋冬两季都是十足类。值得注意的是:糠虾类和介壳类在秋季食料中的比率增加,磷虾类在冬季食料中占相当重要位置。食料的季节变化是和浮游生物的季节变化分不开的。 3.食料种类大小和体长有关:体长在15厘米以上的捕食较大的甲壳类(如磷虾类,口脚类和十足类等),而体长在15厘米以下的则捕食较小的甲壳类(如桡足类)。这和鳃耙密度有关:前者的鳃耙较稀(1毫米长中有1.4—1.9鳃耙)而后者的鳃耙较密(1毫米中有2.0—2.7鳃耙)。 4.食料和浮游生物存在着一定关系;在浮游生物中占优势的种类也...

1.六丝鲚的食料差不多完全是浮游动物,以甲壳类为主,其中以桡足类为最重要、十足类(包括莹虾)次之,糠虾类,端足类,磷虾类更次之。除甲壳类以外,它还捕食很多毛头类和鱼卵,所以六丝鲚应属蜉食性的鱼类。 2.六丝鲚的食料成份有季节变化,不过不很显著:春夏两季以桡足类为主,鱼卵次之,十足类(包括短尾类幼虫)更次之。秋季以桡足类为主,十足类(包括莹虾和短尾类幼虫)次之,糠虾更次之。冬季以桡足类为主,十足类次之,磷虾类更次之。总的来看,桡足类在四季食料中都占了绝对优势。六丝的次要食料则随季节而异;春夏两季是鱼卵,秋冬两季都是十足类。值得注意的是:糠虾类和介壳类在秋季食料中的比率增加,磷虾类在冬季食料中占相当重要位置。食料的季节变化是和浮游生物的季节变化分不开的。 3.食料种类大小和体长有关:体长在15厘米以上的捕食较大的甲壳类(如磷虾类,口脚类和十足类等),而体长在15厘米以下的则捕食较小的甲壳类(如桡足类)。这和鳃耙密度有关:前者的鳃耙较稀(1毫米长中有1.4—1.9鳃耙)而后者的鳃耙较密(1毫米中有2.0—2.7鳃耙)。 4.食料和浮游生物存在着一定关系;在浮游生物中占优势的种类也同样地在食料中占优势。桡足类便是一个很显著例子。其他甲壳类也有相似情况。可是水母则不然,它在浮游生物中很

A project for studying the seasonal variation of the planktonic organisms in the near-shore water of Tsingtao was started in March of 1953. Both quali- tative and quantitative samples have been collected since then at weekly inter- vals as regularly as possible. The present paper is a preliminary report of the results obtained for the first three years (March 1953 to February 1956). Spe- cial attention was paid to the seasonal variation in composition and number of planktonic diatoms. It was found that the...

A project for studying the seasonal variation of the planktonic organisms in the near-shore water of Tsingtao was started in March of 1953. Both quali- tative and quantitative samples have been collected since then at weekly inter- vals as regularly as possible. The present paper is a preliminary report of the results obtained for the first three years (March 1953 to February 1956). Spe- cial attention was paid to the seasonal variation in composition and number of planktonic diatoms. It was found that the most dominant species of the planktonic diatoms in our collections belong to the genera Rhizosolenia, Coscinodiscus, Thalassionema, Leptocylindrus, Chaetoceros, Skeletonema, Melosira, Eueampia, Asterionella, Nitzschia, Thalassiothrix, Ceratulina and Thalassiosira. The monthly occurrence of the different species was noted and compared with that reported for Amoy by professor Chin (1955) . Enumerartion of the diatoms in the quantatitive samples was made and the results were presented in tables and graphs, showing that the average number of cells was highest in September and lowest in April and May. Seasonal variation of environmental conditions was reviewed and correlated to the seasonal variation the planktonic diatoms. A new method for the study of seasonal variation of planktonic diatoms was suggested, emphasizing the physiological stats of different diatoms at the time of collection and their adaptive response to the environmental conditions. The result of a few experiments reported in the present paper showed that the new mgthod deserves further attention.

本文系作者根据1953年3月至1956年9月在青岛所采的海洋浮游生物的定性和定量标本而作的青岛近海浮游矽藻季节变化的初步报告。全文包括四个主要内容。第一部分为青岛海洋浮游矽藻种类记录补遗。一共列出青岛以前未有报告的种或变种共23个,其中有七个为我国沿海首次记录。第二部分为青岛各月近海浮游矽藻的主要组成。文中首先指出,青岛近海浮游矽藻中,以个体数目来看,最多有Rhizosolenia,Coscinodiscus,Thalassionema,Leptocylin-drus,Chaetoceros,Skeletonema,Melosira,Eucampia,Asterionella,Nitzschia,Thalassiothrix,Ceratulina,Thalassiosira等属。其次将各属矽藻的主要种类和出现月份加以敍述,最後并与厦门港的海洋矽藻组成做了比较。第三部分为青岛近海浮游矽藻数量的季节变化。结果示明,青岛近海浮游矽藻数以9月最多,4、5月最少。6、7月数量上升,8月稍挫,9月高峰後,显著下降。12月至2月间有一次增加。文中并将青岛一般海洋环境的季节变化和食植浮游动物及双鞭毛虫的数量变化做...

本文系作者根据1953年3月至1956年9月在青岛所采的海洋浮游生物的定性和定量标本而作的青岛近海浮游矽藻季节变化的初步报告。全文包括四个主要内容。第一部分为青岛海洋浮游矽藻种类记录补遗。一共列出青岛以前未有报告的种或变种共23个,其中有七个为我国沿海首次记录。第二部分为青岛各月近海浮游矽藻的主要组成。文中首先指出,青岛近海浮游矽藻中,以个体数目来看,最多有Rhizosolenia,Coscinodiscus,Thalassionema,Leptocylin-drus,Chaetoceros,Skeletonema,Melosira,Eucampia,Asterionella,Nitzschia,Thalassiothrix,Ceratulina,Thalassiosira等属。其次将各属矽藻的主要种类和出现月份加以敍述,最後并与厦门港的海洋矽藻组成做了比较。第三部分为青岛近海浮游矽藻数量的季节变化。结果示明,青岛近海浮游矽藻数以9月最多,4、5月最少。6、7月数量上升,8月稍挫,9月高峰後,显著下降。12月至2月间有一次增加。文中并将青岛一般海洋环境的季节变化和食植浮游动物及双鞭毛虫的数量变化做了分析和对照,又将青岛和厦门港两地海洋浮游矽藻数量变化做了比较。第四部分为矽藻数量季节变化研究方法的一个新建议。文中略述了矽藻数量季节双化研究中的主要问题,并建议加强关於矽藻对於生活条件改变的适应回答的研究,以期能更好地揭露矽藻数量变动的规律。最後,文中介绍了作者所进行的测定矽藻质量的实验初步的结果。

 
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