This paper introduces a method of the electronic beam flow controlling of the electron beam welding machine by using V/F and F/V converter. It realizes the quick controlling of the welding beam flow and improves the stability and reliability of the electron beam.
In a pulsed mode, a time-average ion beam current in excess of 10 mA has been extracted for a range of elements such as Al, Ti, Cr, Nl,Cu,Nb etc. The ion beam current depends on cathode material, arc current, extractor voltage etc.
The experiment results suggest that the reactive ion beam etching using CHF3 will get high etching selectivity(2.5∶1 of silicon oxide film and 1∶1 of hafnium oxide film) under low ion energy and ion beam current and low accelerate voltage.
The extracting voltage of the ion source can be changed between 0—4.0 kV continuously. The maximum extractable ion beam current is 100 mA and the maximum deposition rate is 0.45 nm/s using Ti as the sputtering material. The ion source can be operated continuously for 160 h.
Chinese hamster chromosomes were also stained with both 33258 Hoechst (HO) and chromomycin A3 (CA3); the two dye contents were measured by selective excitation in the UV and at 458 nm in a dual beam flow cytometer.
Human chromosomes stained with both HO and CA3 and measured in the dual beam flow cytometer produced two parameter fluorescence distributions which showed 20 groups.
The HO/CA3-stained chromosomes were measured in a dual beam flow cytometer, and bivariate HO/CA3 flow karyotypes and univariate HO and CA3 flow karyotypes were established.
Cloning of genomic sequences from the human Y chromosome after purification by dual beam flow sorting
Human Y chromosomes were purified by dual beam flow sorting from a human x Chinese hamster cell line retaining the Y as the only free human chromosome.
The source ensures an argon ion beam current of up to 80 mA at a discharge current and voltage of 1 A and 115 V, respectively, and a pressure of 1.5 × 10-2 Pa in the chamber.
Depending on the geometric parameter la (the anode length to diameter ratio) and pressure, maxima are observed in the discharge current and in the ion beam current extracted from an aperture at the center of the cathode.
Composite layers made in sapphire by implantation of 40-keV Cu+ ions at a dose of 1 × 1017 cm-2 and an ion beam current density varying from 2.5 to 10 μA/cm2 are studied.
Metal-nanoparticle-containing composite layers were synthesized by implantation of 60 keV Ag+ ions into a soda-lime silicate glass to a dose of 3×1016 ion/cm2 at an ion beam current density of 3 μA/cm2 and a substrate temperature of 35°C.
Sapphire-based composite layers implanted with 40-keV Cu+ ions to a total dose of 1.0×1017 cm-2 at an ion beam current density varied from 2.5 to 10 μA/cm2 were studied using Rutherford backscattering and optical reflectance methods.