This precursor protein is proteolytically processed by the host cellular signal peptidase and viral proteinase to generate at least 10 proteins: the core, envelope 1 (El), E2, p7, nonstructural (NS) 2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B. In addition, studies indicate the ORF of HCV core could move to an novel one, named F protein, which weigh 17 kD.
P2X_7, which belongs to the P2X nucleotide receptor family, is structurally and functionally unique. Recent studies demonstrated that it could mediate cellular signal transduction. P2X_7 couples two intracellular signal pathways through Ca~(2+) thereby leading to the activation of PLD and the secretion of IL-1β.
One molecular mechanism of skin photoaging is that UVA and UVB induce MMPs gene transcription of epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts through activating cellular signal transduction pathways.
Objective:To investigate the expression of FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome ten) in the breast carcinoma tissue, to seek their relationship with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, to study the relationship between the cell signaling transduction system mediated by FAK and the carcinognesis, development of breast carcinoma, and to provide the experimental basis of prognosis judgement for breast carcinoma.
目的:研究乳腺癌组织中粘着斑激酶(focal adhesion kinase,FAK)和PTEN(phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome ten)的表达与肿瘤细胞增殖、侵袭转移的关系,探讨FAK介导的细胞信号转导系统与乳腺癌发生发展的关系,同时为乳腺癌的预后判断提供实验依据。
Introduction to Cellular Signal Transduction (Ari Sitaramayya, ed., Birkhauser, Boston-Basel-Berlin, 1999, 311 p.)
The hypothesis is based on the fact that both diabetes and carcinogenesis cause dysfunction of the vital cellular signal system regulated by the protein kinase C (PKC) family.
In addition to their antioxidant potential, carotenoids obtain physiologically relevant properties such as influencing cellular signal pathways, gene expression or induction of detoxifying enzymes.
It was concluded that cAMP and cGMP might play an important role in traumatic stress, participate in the cellular signal transducation and promote the immune function of leucocytes and the coagulation founction of platelets.
Cadmium is a toxic transition heavy metal of continuing occupational and environmental concern, with a wide variety of adverse effects on regulation of gene expression and cellular signal transduction pathways.
Putative pathways of regulation of WASP proteins by various protein ligands and their links with cell signaling systems are considered.
Sphingolipids and cell signaling: Involvement in apoptosis and atherogenesis
Lipid second messengers and cell signaling in vascular wall
The role of sphingolipids as receptors of bacteria, viruses, and toxins and also as ligands of proteinaceous receptors involved in the cell-cell signaling in animals is considered.
The results suggested that, along with PSA, PSM (FOLH1), callicreine-2, and α-2-macroglobulin, cell signaling genes EGFR, HER2, HER3, TOP2, KRT8, KRT18, VEGF, CD44, VIM, CAV1, and CAV2 may serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers in PC.
WASP Family Proteins Act between Cytoskeleton and Cellular Signaling Pathways
By contrast, Ca2+ flux from the extracellular medium seems to be a mechanism initiating the cellular signaling cascade leading to hsp70 gene induction.
Cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) has multiple roles including production of arachidonic acid (a key player in cellular signaling pathways) and membrane remodeling.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted, non-collagenous, sialic acid-rich protein which functions by mediating cell-matrix interactions and cellular signaling via binding with integrins and CD44 receptors.
The Rho GTPase cellular signaling cascade was investigated in pro-monocyte and (monocyte-)macrophage cells by examining GTPase expression and activation in serum-containing cultures on model biomaterials.