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    Nation-wide Competition of Rural Dwelling Design
    为农村建房提供优秀设计方案——全国农村住宅设计方案竞赛评比结束
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    It introduces the entrance sort form,functional and design content of commercial construction,and analyses the entrance space of different commercial construction,points out the design principle of entrance space of commercial construction,gives theory guide to the design of more and better entrance space.
    介绍了商业建筑的入口分类形式、功能性及其设计内容,并对不同商业建筑的入口空间进行了分析,指出商业建筑入口空间的设计原则,为更多更好入口空间的设计提供了理论指导。
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    It sums up the achievement of experiment research,contrasts and discusses the component of armored concrete and steel structure and combined with resilience performance curve of profiled bar common concrete component,and aiming at the research of resilience performance curve of profiled bar high-strength and high performance concrete component,points out the problem that need to solve,this will give the basis to the analysis of nonlinearity earthquake response of structure component and its composite structure.
    综述了目前各种构件的试验研究成果,并对钢筋混凝土构件、钢结构构件、结合型钢普通混凝土构件的恢复力特性曲线的试验研究进行了对比论述,并针对型钢高强高性能混凝土构件的恢复力特性曲线的研究指出了其急待解决的问题,从而为结构构件及其组合结构进行非线性地震反应分析提供了基础。
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    The study of the groove wall stabilization mechanism can be reference for similar engineering.
    通过对槽壁稳定的研究,为解决槽壁坍塌问题提供理论依据和研究方法。
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    By analyzing the characteristics of the combined and scattered tourism resources, this paper explains the connotative and denotative meaning of tourism resources concentrative region and discusses the position and function of the region in regional tourism planning based on niche theory and then stud- ies the ecological niche of the region with Zhejiang province as an example.
    旅游资源单体的结合与分散直接决定着区域旅游规划的定位。 本文剖析旅游资源实体聚合与分散的特征,诠释了旅游资源集合区的内涵与外延,运用生态位理论探讨了旅游资源集合区在区域旅游规划中的地位和作用,并以浙江省为例对区域旅游规划中旅游资源集合区的生态位进行了研究,以期为区域旅游规划中对旅游资源的多角度认识提供参考。
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In a previous paper,(1) a method for solving composite beams jointed by bolts by means of equivalent continous beams is suggested. This result is based on the following assumptions: 1. All beams composing the composite beam have the same deflec non at the point where bolt is used. 2. The actions of bolts are considered as concentrated forces applied on the beams at the points where bolts are used. 8. The effect of torsion caused by the external load which is not ap plied at the shear center of the whole cross-section...

In a previous paper,(1) a method for solving composite beams jointed by bolts by means of equivalent continous beams is suggested. This result is based on the following assumptions: 1. All beams composing the composite beam have the same deflec non at the point where bolt is used. 2. The actions of bolts are considered as concentrated forces applied on the beams at the points where bolts are used. 8. The effect of torsion caused by the external load which is not ap plied at the shear center of the whole cross-section of the composite beam is neglected. 4. The friction between the beams is neglected. 5. The weakening of the cross sections of the beams due to the bolt holes is neglected. In order to examine the correctness of these assumptions the results of a group of tests are given. The results of tests show that all assumptions except the third are well agree with the practical condition. As to the third assumption, the problem will be further studied.

作者曾在前文(1)中提供一种应用相当连续樑来解决螺栓连结的组合樑的简便方法。 此结果基于下列诸假设(除弯曲基本假设以外)。 1.组成组合樑之各樑在螺栓处有相同之挠曲。 2.螺栓的作用视为施加在各樑上螺栓处之集中力。 3.由于外加载荷未作用在组合樑整个截面之弯曲中心而引起之扭转影响略去不 计。 4.诸樑间之摩擦力略去不计。 5.诸樑由于螺栓孔而引起之截面削弱略去不计。  为了检查这些假设与实际问题符合之情况,作者进行了一系列实验。 实验结果指出除了第三假设外所有假设均与实际情况很好符合,关于第三假设的问题尚待进一步研究。

Plasticizing agent is an organic surface-active admixture for cement mortar and concrete. It may be introduced also as an "addition" to the clinker during the grinding process in the manufacture of plasticizing Portland cement. In the USSR, the plasticizing agent under the name of "has been extensively and successfully used in construction works.The plasticizing agent is prepared by chemical treatment of the waste from the alcoholic fermentation of sulfite liquor in pulp manufacture. It contains calcium lignin...

Plasticizing agent is an organic surface-active admixture for cement mortar and concrete. It may be introduced also as an "addition" to the clinker during the grinding process in the manufacture of plasticizing Portland cement. In the USSR, the plasticizing agent under the name of "has been extensively and successfully used in construction works.The plasticizing agent is prepared by chemical treatment of the waste from the alcoholic fermentation of sulfite liquor in pulp manufacture. It contains calcium lignin sulphonate as an effective component and thus possesses hydrophilic property. Due to the adsorption of the agent, a colloidal layer is formed on the surface of the cement particle; hence the effective dispersion and the increase of lubricity between the particles.Following the Soviet experience of CCB, the Materials-Testing and Research Laboratory of Shanghai Civil Engineering Bureau successfully experimented with the preparation of thermal polymer of the plasticizing agent, and a series of tests on the characteristics of the agent were made. This paper attempts to describe the method of preparation and the main properties of the agent.The addition of the agent in an amount of 0.1—0.2% of cement (dry weight) markedly improves the workability and the texture of the mortar and concrete mixtures. It reduces the water requirement and the cement content. It improves the impermeability and durability of the hardened mortar and concrete.The agent has a retarding effect on the setting of cement. It lowers the early strength of mortar and concrete, while the strength of later age is higher than those without admixtures. The use of CaCl_2 accelerator in 0.5—1% of cement by weight speeds up the rate of development of the early strength.The proper dosage of the agent depends upon the properties of cement. Therefore, certain tests should be made with the specified cement and aggregates on the job before the adoption of the agent.

本文介紹亞硫酸鹽酒精液滓塑化劑實驗室中的試製以及對於水泥膠砂及混凝土技術性能方面的作用。首先說明一些塑化劑的理論及亞硫酸鹽酒精液滓的技術規格,再簡要的介紹上海市政工程局材料試驗研究所試驗研究的經過和結果;最后综合蘇聯對於塑化劑和塑化水泥使用的先進經驗。塑化剂是一種有機的表面活動性物質,利用造紙工業发液進行酒精發酵所得的液滓。加入微量的塑化劑——約為水泥重量的0.1—0.25%,可以顯著的改善膠砂和混凝土的性質。在增加流動性、改善和易性和提高耐久性方面,有十分的效用,尤其是對節約水泥用量有极大的意義。祖國的建设事業正迫切需要這類新型的建築材料,因此提供一些试驗研究結果,以供国家主管機關和科技工作同志們深入研究和推廣使用時的參考。

In this paper a method for computing the influence lines in open rigid frames is presented. This method is based on the Müller-Breslau's principle that every deflection diagram is an influence line. If any section of a given rigid frame, at which the influence llne of any stress function——such as reaction, shear, bending moment and torsion——is desired, is allowed to produce freely a corresponding unit deformation, the deflection diagram of this frame will be the same as the influence of that stress function.The...

In this paper a method for computing the influence lines in open rigid frames is presented. This method is based on the Müller-Breslau's principle that every deflection diagram is an influence line. If any section of a given rigid frame, at which the influence llne of any stress function——such as reaction, shear, bending moment and torsion——is desired, is allowed to produce freely a corresponding unit deformation, the deflection diagram of this frame will be the same as the influence of that stress function.The fundamental idea of this method is that the angle-changes at ends of bars due to unit deformation can be determined by propagating joint rotations and that the resulting deflection diagram which is the same as the influence line of the corresponding stress function may be determined by method of conjugate beam.Typical numerical examples are worked out to show the application of this method.

本文提供一種求敞口剛架影響線的方法。依據米勒白斯老(Müller-Bres1au)氏“變位線即影響線”的原理,令剛架中某點有與其應力函數相应的單位形变,則剛架因此所產生的變位曲線即為該應力函數的影響線。本文所叙述的方法,係利用角變傳播原理,求出各桿兩端由於上项單位形變所引起的角变,再根據此項角變求出各桿的變位曲線,亦即該應力函數的影響線。举有實例以示此法之應用。

 
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