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    The result indicated that N balance went through a process from slight deficit to surplus during 1985~2000, changing from deficit of 1.4% in 1985 to surplus of 48.6% in 2000. Potassium balance changed gradually from serious deficit of 82% to slight surplus of 4.6%, but was still deficit in many fields.
    结果表明 ,1985~ 2 0 0 0年栾城县农田养分平衡中 ,N素经历了由轻微赤字向盈余的转变过程 ,由 1985年的 1.4 %赤字转变到 2 0 0 0年盈余 4 8.6 % ;
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    It can divide complex teaching information and it will make cognitive process from difficult to easy.
    能够分解复杂的教学信息,使认知过程由难到易;
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    Marx’s ideologyis present in a dynamic developing process: from value critique of philosophicalideology, it directly deepens into historical scientific critique of fetishism.
    马克思的意识形态概念存在一个动态的发展过程:由哲学意识形态的价值批判,逐步深化为对拜物教的历史性科学批判。
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    The social connotation presented by the appellation of Jia experienced an evolutionary process from non-classed appellation of the house for fete ancestor to classed appellation of Qindaifu in this period.
    “家”这一称谓在先秦时期经历了由非等级称谓向等级称谓逐渐转化的历史过程,由人们普遍使用的祭祀祖先的场所变为了卿大夫之家的专有称谓。
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    The process of Chinese aesthetic teaching is a process from creating aesthetic situation to freely expressing the beauty, that is student's receiving and understanding the texts, then change the feeling into student's inner language, finally, students can freely express out the feeling.
    教与学和谐统一。 语文审美式教学过程由“创设情境”到“自由表达”的过程,也就是学生“接受理解——内化语言——外化表达”的过程。
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    A Birth and Death Process with One Instantaneous State Can be Uniquely Determined by Its 0~+-System
    单瞬时生灭过程由0~+-系统的唯一决定性
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    A Class of Q-processes Which are Determined by Their O~+-system
    一类 Q 过程由其 O~+-系统的唯一决定性
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    The Uniqueness of Q-process with Given 0 ̄+-system for Kolmogorov Matrix
    柯氏矩阵的Q过程由其0~+──系统的唯一决定性
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    After structural equation modeling,the fit indexes,GFI =0.924,CFI =0.913,the abstracted factor model showed a good fit with the sample data.
    经过结构方程模型的鉴定、评价和检测等过程,由这5个压力源构成的因子模型被证明与样本数据的分布相适应GFI=0.924,GFI=0.913.
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    Teaching consists of three stages of universality,individuality and reality,each having different values,features and requirements.
    教学过程由普遍化、个人化、现实化三个阶段所组成,每一阶段的价值、特点、教学要求各有不同。
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Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer process from C60 moiety to carbazole moiety has been studied by nanosecond laser flash photolysis.
      
Single and pauci chain aggregates of isotactic polystyrene (i-PS) were prepared by the freeze-drying process from dilute solutions with the concentration from 1×10-3 to 2×10-5 g/mL.
      
As a result, the lamella thickness of bulk samples and the samples prepared by the freeze-drying process from a solution of 2×10-5 g/mL was 19.3 and 12.6 nm, respectively.
      
All these results should be attributed to the fewer entanglements in samples prepared by freeze-drying process from dilute solutions, and presented clear evidence for the influence of chain entanglements on the crystallization behavior of polymers.
      
The DNA purification process from the rat peripheral blood can be achieved and the DNA yield is 24 ng/(μL whole blood), which can reach the level of the commercial DNA purification kits.
      
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The behavior of anodie dissolution of brass(Cu37Zn)was investigated in 1N Na_2SO_4 and 0.5N NaCl solutions with rotating ring-disc electrode. Partial anodic current densities of zinc and copper dissolution(i_(Zn) and i_(Cn)) of brass were measured respectively. Experimental results show that dezincification of Cu37Zn takes place in above mentioned media during anodic dissolution. Calculated dezincification factor of Cu37Zn Varies with electrode potential in 1N Na_2SO_4 solution. However, this factor does not...

The behavior of anodie dissolution of brass(Cu37Zn)was investigated in 1N Na_2SO_4 and 0.5N NaCl solutions with rotating ring-disc electrode. Partial anodic current densities of zinc and copper dissolution(i_(Zn) and i_(Cn)) of brass were measured respectively. Experimental results show that dezincification of Cu37Zn takes place in above mentioned media during anodic dissolution. Calculated dezincification factor of Cu37Zn Varies with electrode potential in 1N Na_2SO_4 solution. However, this factor does not vary significantly with electrode potential in 0.5N NaCl solution. By extrapolation of the partial polarization curves of copper and zinc for Cu37Zn, partial corros on current densities of zinc and copper have been calculated as follows: i_(corr)(Cu) i_(corr)(Zn) 1N Na_2SO-4 3×10~(-5)μA/cm~2 0.089μA/cm~2 0.5N NaCl 1.6μA/cm~2 3.6μA/cm~2 Experimental results also show that the rate of anodie dissolution of brass is mass-diffusion-controlled in both investigated media.

本文采用旋转圆盘——圆环电极研究了黄铜(Cu37Zn)在1N Na_2SO_4及0.5N NaCl溶液中的阳极溶解行为。分别测出了黄铜阳极溶解时铜和锌的阳极溶解分电流密度。实验结果表明,Cu37Zn在上述两种介质中阳极溶解时均存在脱锌现象。在1N Na_2SO_4溶液中测得的脱锌系数强烈地依赖于阳极电位,而在0.5N NaCl溶液中,其脱锌系数与阳极电位的关系不明显。由黄铜中铜和锌的阳极极化曲线外推计算出了黄铜阳极溶解时锌和铜的腐蚀分电流密度,在1N Na_2SO_4溶液中分别为0.089及3×10~(-5)μA/cm~2,在0.5N NaCl溶液中分别为3.6及1.6μA/cm~2。实验还表明,黄铜在上述介质中的阳极溶解过程由扩散步骤所控制。

Mechanism of condensation of formaldehyde with isobutene on the solid acid-basic catalyst has been investigated by means of the approximate molecular orbital method of MINDO/2. The geometrical configurations of various intermediate species adsorbed on the solid acid-basic catalyst were optimized with SIMPLEX method. According to the experimental facts and the general principles of quantum chemistry, calculations and discussions were made for the eight states (see Fig. 4) in the course of the condensation reaction....

Mechanism of condensation of formaldehyde with isobutene on the solid acid-basic catalyst has been investigated by means of the approximate molecular orbital method of MINDO/2. The geometrical configurations of various intermediate species adsorbed on the solid acid-basic catalyst were optimized with SIMPLEX method. According to the experimental facts and the general principles of quantum chemistry, calculations and discussions were made for the eight states (see Fig. 4) in the course of the condensation reaction. For the following three parts, the quantum chemical calculations were performed: ( 1 ) the effects of the acidic and basic property of catalysts on the reactivity of formaldehyde, ( 2 ) the effects of the acid-basic property of catalysts on the reactivity of isobutene, and ( 3 ) the possible reaction pathways of the condensation between formaldehyde and isobutene on the acid-basic catalysts. Calculation results indicate that ( 1 ) the formaldehyde is mainly adsorbed on the acidic sites, and ( 2 ) the cooperative action of acidic and basic sites is important in the condensation reaction of the formaldehyde with isobutene, this action promotes the reduction of the repulsive energies in the first stage of the condensation reaction, increases the selectivity of the condensation reaction, and prevents the methyl group of isobutene from thermal decomposition. Calculations have also shown that the most important transition state is the form of "enol" structure formed in the course of condensation. The dehydration process proceeds via an oxygen of formaldehyde and basic site to capture two hydrogens of methyl group of isobutene respectively. The calculated energy barrier is rather satisfactory.

运用近似分子轨道理论MINDO/2方法,对甲醛和异丁烯在酸碱固体催化剂表面上的缩合反应进行了量子化学计算,按照SIMPLEX方法实现各种酸碱吸附态以及反应过程中各状态能量的几何构型最优化。根据本所甲醛和异丁烯气相一步合成异戊二烯的实验和量子化学一般原理,设计了由八个状态组成的反应途径,较详细地讨论了它们的反应机理。 计算结果指出:反应中甲醛均以酸吸附为主。体系中适量的碱性物质产生的酸碱协同效应,对于降低反应的初始排斥能是重要的,并且有利于提高反应选择性,防止异丁烯甲基的热分解。计算还指出:本反应的中间过渡态主要是形成一种“类烯醇互变”的状态,该脱水过程是由甲醛上的氧和碱性中心分别夺取异丁烯的甲基上两个氢。计算得到的势能位垒比较满意。

During sewage discharge into estuary Cr(Ⅵ ) in industrial waste water is reduced by dissolved organics into low-toxic Cr(Ⅲ). In natural water body, kinetics of Cr(Ⅵ) reduction by dissolved organics is of a first order reaction for both Cr(Ⅵ) and H+. Reduction process consists of two reactions, of which reaction I is the oxidation of hydroxyl of phenol (φ-OH) by Cr(Ⅵ), k_1~18 =0.036 min-1 and reaction Ⅱ is for hydroxyl of alcohol (R-OH) k_1~18=1.6×10-3min-l. Activation energy is E1 = 26kcal and E2 = 40kcal respectively...

During sewage discharge into estuary Cr(Ⅵ ) in industrial waste water is reduced by dissolved organics into low-toxic Cr(Ⅲ). In natural water body, kinetics of Cr(Ⅵ) reduction by dissolved organics is of a first order reaction for both Cr(Ⅵ) and H+. Reduction process consists of two reactions, of which reaction I is the oxidation of hydroxyl of phenol (φ-OH) by Cr(Ⅵ), k_1~18 =0.036 min-1 and reaction Ⅱ is for hydroxyl of alcohol (R-OH) k_1~18=1.6×10-3min-l. Activation energy is E1 = 26kcal and E2 = 40kcal respectively (18-28℃).

工厂排放的含Cr(Ⅵ)废水注入河口之后,受水体中溶解有机物的还原,转化为低毒的Cr(Ⅲ).在天然水体中Cr(Ⅵ)被溶解有机物还原的反应动力学表明:该过程对Cr(Ⅵ)和H~+均为一级反应.还原过程由两个反应组成,反应Ⅰ是Cr(Ⅵ)对酚羟基(φ—OH)的氧化,反应速度常数k_1~(18℃)=0.036min~(-1).反应Ⅱ是Cr(Ⅵ)对醇羟基(R—OH)的氧化,反应速度常数k_1~('18℃=1.5×10~(-3)min~(-1)。反应的活化能E_1=26kcal/mol,E_1~'=40kcal/mol(18—28℃).利用正交设计实验测定该还原反应热力学的有关参数得出:溶解有机物对Cr(Ⅵ)的还原作用体系的反应物浓度和pH对反应平衡点有显著影响河口水域的水化学条件有利于Cr(Ⅵ)的还原.在反应平衡时六价铬的浓度(C_(Cr)~(eq)_(VI))与溶解有机物含量(DOC)之间的相关关系的基础上,外推得出不同环境功能水质要求的排放标准的计算通式:C_(Cr)~d_(VI)=α(Q/q)C_(Cr)~8_(VI)+kDOC

 
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