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  under working
     This paper studies the elastic sag resistance of a low carbon martensite spring steel 35Si2CrVB developed recently and points that cyclic softening of spring under working is the cause of elastic sag,also considers that elastic sag resistance can be valued through dynamic mechanical properties.
     对新研制的低碳马氏体弹簧钢 35Si2CrVB的弹性减退性能作了研究 ,指出弹性减退的本质是弹簧在服役过程中的循环软化 ,材料的动态屈服强度σ′0 2 ,动态屈强比σ′0 2 /σb 和σ′0 2 /σ′0 2 可作为评定材料弹性减退抗力的重要的力学指标。
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     The superheater tubes for catalytic reforming CO made of 12Cr1MoV steel were broken after being used for 25000 hours.
     材质为12Cr1MoV的重催CO高温加热炉管,在服役25000h后发生胀管破裂。
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     The results demonstrate that the difference of assessment using R6 general curve, C Mn curve in R6 appendix 8, CVDA 84 specification for pressure vessel and K I factor theory is small in the early stage of service, and it becomes larger in the late stage.
     计算结果表明 ,R6通用曲线、R6附录 8的C Mn曲线、CVDA 84压力容器缺陷评定规范和KI 因子等 4种断裂判据在服役初期的差别微小 ,但在服役后期 ,它们之间的差别增大。
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     APPLICATION OF VALUE ENGINEERING IN THE DECISION MAKING OF EXISTING STRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
     价值工程在服役结构加固维修决策中的应用
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     However, there are three compound layers at the interface after aging for 500h and 1000h: (from Cu substrate, they are Cu-Sn, Cu-Zn, Sn-Cu IMC layer respectively). The instability of Cu-Zn IMC layer has detrimental effects on the joints reliability during aging.
     而时效至500 h和1000 h后,界面处形成了三层化合物层(从Cu母材侧起,分别为Cu-Sn化合物层,Cu-Zn化合物层和Sn-Cu化合物层),Cu-Zn化合物层在时效过程中的不稳定将会影响接头在服役条件下的可靠性。
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     It was proved that the cathodic protection technology is the most effective and practical method for the protection of steel reinforced concrete structures in service.
     这项技术的工程应用进一步说明,在这种已经建成的、还在服役的钢筋混凝土构筑物内,阴极保护技术是目前抑制钢筋锈蚀的最有效和切实可行的方法。
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     Study of Ensuring Aircraft's Service Year
     飞机服役年限的确定
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     Discussion on Service Life of HLD
     铲运机服役年限的探讨
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     Monitoring the Condition of Aircraft Turbine Engines in Service
     服役中航空涡轮发动机的状态监控
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     The Safety Inspection of Offshore Structure in Service Period
     海上结构物服役期的安全性检测
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  under working
Under working conditions, the proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of Zn2+ and Cu2+ in several real and synthetic mixtures with different concentration ratio of Zn2+ and Cu2+.
      
The obtained reproducibility of diffraction reflex positions under working conditions was 2 arcsec and 4 arcsec after mechanical modifications of the spectrometer kinematics.
      
It is recommended to use this model under working conditions to obtain the required durability of the tool under given operating conditions.
      
Similarly, the hemodynamic data obtained under working conditions in group B were superior to those in group A.
      
A blind trial was carried out between up to 20 laboratories to ascertain the reproducibility of the nomenclature under working conditions.
      
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  under arms
Second, information coevolution produces a pattern of local maladaptation of enemy on host, a naturally occurring phenomenon that is difficult to explain under arms race coevolution.
      
The strength of military forces is no longer measured by the number of men under arms.
      


By using Optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope and Microhardness testing an investigation has teen made about the failure behavior of hot-roller forging die used for thermo-forming 2Cr13 stainless steel table knife. It could be observed that during service on the working surface of the die there appear two kinds of surface damages: Roughening by picking and subsidence resulting from high temperature fatigue and checking cracking from thermalfatigue. These two are quite different not only in the appearance...

By using Optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope and Microhardness testing an investigation has teen made about the failure behavior of hot-roller forging die used for thermo-forming 2Cr13 stainless steel table knife. It could be observed that during service on the working surface of the die there appear two kinds of surface damages: Roughening by picking and subsidence resulting from high temperature fatigue and checking cracking from thermalfatigue. These two are quite different not only in the appearance but also in their induced cracking propogation direction. Analysis indicated that in our case the contact fatigue damage is the main reason causing premature failure of the die. Hence it can be considered that to raise the strength and plastic deformation resistance of its surface layer at elevated temperature is thekey for increasing the service life of dies. Our experimental results have shown that the service life of this die can be significantly improved by using appropriate thermo-chemical treatment.

本文运用金相分析、扫描电镜和显微硬度等方法对不锈钢餐刀热辊锻模具的失效特征进行了分析。观察发现:该模具在服役过程中工作表面上出现二种不同的表面损伤:即因高温接触疲劳引起的拉毛和塌陷以及因热疲劳引起的龟裂。二者不仅形貌不同且它们在纵断面上诱发的裂纹走向也各异。分析表明,造成该模具早期失效的主要原因是由于接触疲劳引起的表面损伤。由此可认为:提高模具表面层的热强性及塑性形变抗力是提高该辊锻模寿命的关键。本试验结果证实了采用合适的化学热处理确能显著提高3Cr2W8V热辊锻模的使用寿命。

This paper investigated the delayed fracture characteristics of high strength steel bolts from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics, and presented some ways and precautions to be taken in preventing the bolts from delayed fracture.

应用断裂力学的观点和方法研究和分析了高强螺栓延迟断裂的原因及其规律,并提出了预防的措施和方法。主要内容有: 1、应用恒位移缺口试样,模拟标准螺栓联接在服役条件下所产生的峰值应力,对七种强度级别的35C_rM_nsiA钢在四种介质中(纯水,3.5%N_acl水溶液,新三磺泥浆、老三磺泥浆)的应力腐蚀裂纹萌生规律进行了研究。发现:当强度限σ_b≤135kg/mm~2,缺口根部不会萌生应力腐蚀裂纹。而当σ_b>140kg/mm~2,缺口处极易产生裂纹。 2、测试了35C_rM_nsiA钢在四种介质中的应力腐蚀裂纹扩展速率(da)/(dt)与止裂界限应力强度因子K_(ISCC)。结果发现:当σ_b≤135kg/mm~2,随强度限的降低,K_(ISCC)有明显的升高,而(da)/(dt)则大幅度的下降。当σ_b>140kg/mm~2,K_(ISCC)及(da)/(dt)随强度的改变而变化的规律都不明显。四种介质中的K_(ISCC)相差不大。当σ_b>140kg/mm~2,纯水中的(da)/(dt)比其余三种介质中的要快的多,是盐水中的2~6倍。当σ_b<135kg/mm~2,它们的差别逐渐减小,直至全部趋近...

应用断裂力学的观点和方法研究和分析了高强螺栓延迟断裂的原因及其规律,并提出了预防的措施和方法。主要内容有: 1、应用恒位移缺口试样,模拟标准螺栓联接在服役条件下所产生的峰值应力,对七种强度级别的35C_rM_nsiA钢在四种介质中(纯水,3.5%N_acl水溶液,新三磺泥浆、老三磺泥浆)的应力腐蚀裂纹萌生规律进行了研究。发现:当强度限σ_b≤135kg/mm~2,缺口根部不会萌生应力腐蚀裂纹。而当σ_b>140kg/mm~2,缺口处极易产生裂纹。 2、测试了35C_rM_nsiA钢在四种介质中的应力腐蚀裂纹扩展速率(da)/(dt)与止裂界限应力强度因子K_(ISCC)。结果发现:当σ_b≤135kg/mm~2,随强度限的降低,K_(ISCC)有明显的升高,而(da)/(dt)则大幅度的下降。当σ_b>140kg/mm~2,K_(ISCC)及(da)/(dt)随强度的改变而变化的规律都不明显。四种介质中的K_(ISCC)相差不大。当σ_b>140kg/mm~2,纯水中的(da)/(dt)比其余三种介质中的要快的多,是盐水中的2~6倍。当σ_b<135kg/mm~2,它们的差别逐渐减小,直至全部趋近于零。 3、螺栓各不同部位的应力强度因子K_Ⅰ是不相同的,但K_(Ⅰmax)则可能发生于二个地方,即螺纹的收尾处及与螺母(桩)相配合且距支承约2/3螺距处。由于拉弯复合作用,前者比后者可能要大。当丝扣根部有0.5mm裂纹,则对中碳低合金高强钢,只有取σ_b≤120kg/mm~2才能保证K_Ⅰ

In this paper, the residual life evaluation and the safety assessment for 100 MW water turbogenerator axle with flaw runing in a hydroelectric station were carried out based upon fracture mechanics approach. In order to verify the accuracy of the mechanics model adopted and the theoretical analysis results, the fatigue crack propagation was investigated experimently on obligue cracked cylinders under tension and torsion. The theoritical analysis results were in good agreement with the experiments. It is concluded...

In this paper, the residual life evaluation and the safety assessment for 100 MW water turbogenerator axle with flaw runing in a hydroelectric station were carried out based upon fracture mechanics approach. In order to verify the accuracy of the mechanics model adopted and the theoretical analysis results, the fatigue crack propagation was investigated experimently on obligue cracked cylinders under tension and torsion. The theoritical analysis results were in good agreement with the experiments. It is concluded that the axle with flaw will be safe in the assigned life of service.

本文用断裂力学方法对某电厂水轮发电机含缺陷大轴进行了剩余寿命估算和安全评定。为验证所用力学计算模型以及评定结论的正确性,对含斜裂纹圆筒进行了拉扭复合疲劳试验研究。理论分析结果与试验结果符合良好,表明大轴在服役期内是安全的。

 
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